Saturday, May 23, 2020
People have imitated another person to be a one of a kind. People have modeled themselves on someone, doing every action they do. Bullying a person physically with fists or verbally by hurting emotions when they see someone else do it. Vandalize a property by throwing eggs and liter at someones home or business because they saw a popular person do it. Is it necessary to imitate others before they can become original and creative? To some people, they think copying someone else will make them trendy, prominent, etc. However, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to follow someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps to become an unique individual, but to be yourself. People have become successful by coming up with their own theories, rules, and ideas. Such as Isaac Newton and his Three Laws of Motion, or Albert Einstein and his Theory of Relativity along with his equation E=mc2. While some people are seeing that hiding under someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s shadow will help them become creative and original in a way, others have chos en their own path, leading them to success with their distinctive ideas, separating them from others, sticking out and having a vast mind. Imitating someone else before becoming original and creative is wrong and that it isnt necessary to imitate others Duplicating another personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and traits can have a negative influence on the imitator. For example, when a boy sees a popular person at his school and he wants to be popular, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll try to do what the other individual is doing. Probably because he thinksShow MoreRelatedArt As A Form Of Self Expression1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArt can be a form of self-expression and a way to communicate ideas and thoughts with other people. Each time when an art work is being viewed, a resonance between the art itself the viewer is created. Art allows the artists to express themselves and communicate with the world through their own imaginations and crafts. Artists has their own styles and they often use art crafts to blend colors to create incredible visual effects. Art is not always easy to understand. It can be a very literal representationRead MoreThe Life and Works of Leon Battista Alberti Essay2519 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pages Europe after the Black Death moved into a period of intense creative revolution and advancement in all creative fields. This Renaissance period moved all aspects art and architecture away from the medieval gothic style and into a time of classical rejuvenation. The architectural side of this movement grew out of Italian cities like Florence, Venice and Rome and would greatly impact architectural design throughout the world for centuries. Among the most influential architects of this period wasRead MoreNetwork Security Policies And Standards Essay1654 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesminimum because the possibility of that risk being actualized is inconsequential. NETWORK SECURITY POLICIES: Network security is a complicated subject, historically only dealt by well-trained and accomplished experts. Nevertheless, as many people become ``wired , a growing number of persons should try to perceive the basic fundamental of security in a social networking world. Business aims and risk examinations commute the requirement for network security. For a span of time, information securityRead MoreEssay on Media Violence in Childrens Lives2588 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesthere has been an increase in the amount and severity of violent acts observed by children through the media, including television, movies, computer games, and videotapes, and an increase in the manufacture and distribution of weapon-like toys and other products directly linked to violent programming. In response, Governing Board appointed a panel of experts to guide the development of initiatives and resources to assist teachers and parents in confronting the issue of violence in the lives of childrenRead More The Morality and Utility of Artificial Intelligence Essay4241 Words Ã |Ã 17 Pagesunreachable dream. In considering the definitions and implications of Artificial Intelligence, many philosophers have reached extremely different conclusions. Alan Turing, author of the Turing Test, believed that an intelligent machine would be able to imitate perfectly a human. Margaret Boden, Professor of Philosophy and Psychology at the University of Sussex, contends that a machine is intelligent if it possesses and displays certain human values. Moving away from the pure definition of intelligenceRead MoreClassroom Curriculum And Schools Provide Greater Opportunities For Children3219 Words Ã |Ã 13 Pagesunity. Social-play, or rough-and-tumble play, is the earliest form of social behavior that is focused toward peers, rather than the mother. Similar to most young mammals, human children spend a great deal of their maturation engaging in play with others. The ability to engage in social play is an important indicator of healthy development. Social play deficits are a symptom of neuropsychia tric disorders in childhood and adolescence, such as autism, early-onset schizophrenia, and attention-deficit/hyperactivityRead MoreCensorship of Howard HawksÃ¢â¬â¢ Film, Scarface Essay2339 Words Ã |Ã 10 PagesOffice , may have been out of good intentions but were carried out poorlyÃ¢â¬âthe revisions to the film werenÃ¢â¬â¢t necessary and in a sense were more harmful to the film than beneficial. Being more harmful than beneficial, the changes made to the film violated the 1st Amendment, misrepresenting the film itself away from the artistic credibility of the original script while also disabling the creative process of the producer, Howard Hughes. Although Scarface was a film that was ahead of its time in termsRead MoreEthics, Ethics And Morals Of The User Into Question3486 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pagesin everyday life. We are constantly facing new dilemmas that put us in difficult situations; and thinking of them in depth will make us question our loyalty towards a particular matter. Graphic Designers face those obligations relatively more than other people. The nature of their job is to create pieces of work, and these may be those that as an individual, they do not solely agree with but have an obligation to complete it in order to keep the client satisfied or keep their job and inevitably, getRead MoreAnalysis Of Brenda Weber s Article, What Makes The Man? Television Makeovers2134 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesprocessed hair, or buzz off their hair altogether to appear Ã¢â¬Å"tamerÃ¢â¬ and having to go three shades lighten in foundation. Black journalists must endure a lot if they wish to advance their career on screen. Not only appearance, but speech lessons are a necessary requirement for most black and Hispanic anchors as well. There seems to be an unwritten, unspoken rule book that white media adheres to. It is a book which discriminates against ethnic backgrounds and appearances which do not mirror traditionalRead MoreConditions Necessary for the Development of Core Competencies2801 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat are the necessary conditions for the development of a core competence? Every person gravitate its strengths to step up in life like the best cook in a family makes meals. The mechanically inclined person in a family fixes the broken parts at home and a plant lover takes care of the garden. Similarly, the businesses use their strengths to position themselves in the market. However they follow a formal path for developing core competencies. Successful businesses follow an exact approach to identify
Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËPeaceÃ¢â¬â¢ as a concept is seen through the lens of the fundamental problems faced by the world today: war, armed conflict and political violence. By insinuation, peace itself is understood predominantly as a negative concept, or as the absence of these phenomena (Atack, 2009). Martin Luther King said that Ã¢â¬ËTrue peace is not merely the absence of some negative force - tension, confusion or war; it is the presence of some positive force - justice, good will and brotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢ (King, 1957). Indeed, peace should focus on the positive social and political phenomena such as integrity, equality and wellbeing. In order to create a peaceful world, humans have to strive for positive peace, a condition brought about by establishing standards of justice, human rights, and sustainable development in beloved communities (Harris, 1996, p. 386). Gandhiji too described his ideas of peace with a focus on the positive, according to him peace includes: (i) Peace implies the capacity to live together in harmony. (ii) The creation of non-violent social systems, i.e., a society free from structural violence. (iii) The absence of exploitation and injustice of every kind. (iv) International cooperation and understanding. (v) Ecological balance and conservation. (vi) Peace of mind, or the psycho-spiritual dimension of peace. (NCERT, 2006) These positive views of peace lead us beyond the limited negative associations the notion is centered around. It is important to understand that the conceptShow MoreRelatedPolitical Philosophy And The Role It Plays Today1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophy? And the Role it Plays Today Savannah Dye 9/17/2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Ã¢â¬Å"Political philosophyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"political theoryÃ¢â¬ are versatile, yet relative terms. Ironically, the most unifying aspect of both definitions is their fluidity. One of the only things that theorists concur on is the purpose of a political theory, which is to incite change to a certain degree. The intention of political theorists and political philosophers alike is to unveil the deeper problems in our world, and to emphasize the importanceRead MoreThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Birth of Religions and Philosophies in the Ancient World From the beginning of time, people all over the world have wondered where we come from, what our divine purpose in life is, and what we can expect after death. Questions about right and wrong, society and government, and nature and the cosmos, are some of the few wonders that ultimately created some of the earliest philosophies and religions, helping people find peace and explanation to the vast curiosity that still troubles us in modernRead MoreThe Advantages of Conscription1719 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pageskeep the current all-volunteer system of draftees, it would be economically and militarily beneficial to re-impose the draft. As a country prepares to go to war, they are faced with the dilemma of ensuring that they have a sufficient number of trained army personnel to carry out any missions they feel are necessary. The problem that sometimes arises is that the military finds itself understaffed, while already on the eve of war. This results in a scramble to recruit and train battle ready men, whileRead MoreThe Role of United Nations in 21st Century4626 Words Ã |Ã 19 Pagescountries have joined together to work for world peace and against poverty and injustice. The UN was established as a result of a conference in San Francisco in June 1945 by 51 countries committed to preserving peace through international cooperation and collective security. Today, nearly every state in the world belongs to the UN - 191 countries in all. UN headquarters are located in New York City.Ã Ã¢â¬ ¨Ã¢â¬ ¨ The UN is not a world government, and it does not make laws.Read MoreDeconstruct ing the Constructivism1986 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesconstructivism The paradox of the norm Deconstructing the subject is first to analyses historically, the formation of different layers that have build the concept of the subject. When deconstruct the subject, it is important to analyze all the hidden assumption that are implied with the philosophical, ethical, theatrical and the political use of the concept of the subject. Deconstructivist came to the public notice with 1982, the Parc de la Villette in Paris by Bernard TschumiÃ¢â¬â¢s winning gantry. DeconstructivismRead MoreThe Conflict Resolution : Peace1927 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesWhat is peace ? To some it is freedom of disturbance and to others it is the presence of tranquility. To those that study the field of conflict resolution, peace is seen as a concept that can be viewed as either negative or positive. Negative peace is the absence of war while positive peace is the integration of human society (Galtung). Though positive peace is the ideal standard that most would like to hold the world to, it is negative peace that is most present in society. Negative peace thoughRead MoreThe Conflict Resolution : Peace2586 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesWhat is peace? To some it is freedom of the disturbance and to others it is the presence of tranquility. To those that study the field of conflict resolution, peace is a concept that can be viewed as either negativ e or positive. Negative peace is the absence of war while positive peace is the integration of human society (Galtung). Though positive peace is the ideal standard that most would like to hold the world to, it is negative peace that is most present in society. Negative peace, though havingRead MoreAll About Peace Education13195 Words Ã |Ã 53 PagesABOUT PEACE EDUCATION *Dr. Ajay Kumar Attri, Lecturer; Department of Education, MLSM College ; Sundernagar; Mandi (H.P) Ã¢Å¾ ¢ INTRODUCTION: Education shall be directed toward the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, racial or religious groups and shall further the activities of the United Nations for the maintenance of peace. Read More The Importance of the United Nations Security Council Essay2137 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesresponsibility, under the Charter, for the maintenance of international peace and securityÃ¢â¬ (UNSecurity Council 2010). The end of the 1980s and the 1990s has been marked by major changes in international relations, both as practice and as an academic discipline. The collapse of the multi-polar system in the world politics, fall of the Berlin Wall, the end of the Cold War and the beginning of some state level wars transformed the international peace affairs with the Security Council in the international cooperationRead MoreIs Liberal Internationalism Utopian, Or Does It Offer A Credible Alternative?2936 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesorder to maintain both world order and create harmony for its state to live in by democratic means. In R GardnerÃ¢â¬â¢s The Comeback of Liberal Internationalisms he defines this by very similar means, suggesting this political tradition relies on Ã¢â¬Å"the necessity of leadership by political democraciesÃ¢â¬ . Following the onset of the 20th century the international political sphere has been characterised by the creations of institutions which have sought to establish a de mocratic peace and in many ways often
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Chapter 1 Wastewater Reuse: An Overview 1.1Introduction Growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure on the development of new water resources have prompted a variety of measures to reclaim, recycle and reuse wastewater over the last two or three decades. As part of this trend, some municipalities have commenced to reuse wastewater for non-potable water needs, such as irrigation of golf courses and parks. We will write a custom essay sample on Wastewater reuse growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure. or any similar topic only for you Order Now In a little but increasing number of municipalities, these measures involve the use of treated wastewater to augment the general water supply. A major catalyst for the development of wastewater reuse, recycling and reclamation has been the need to provide alternative water resources to achieve water quantity requirement for industry, irrigation, urban potable and non-potable water applications. The benefits coupled with reusing treated wastewater for supplemental applications prior to disposal or discharge include environmental protection, preservation of high quality water resources and economic advantages. These Ã¢â¬Å"wastewater reuseÃ¢â¬ projects are made possible by reliability and effectiveness of wastewater treatment technologies that can turn municipal wastewater into reclaimed wastewater that can serve as a supplemental water resource in addition to meeting standards established by the Safe Water Drinking Act. However, important problems remain regarding the levels of testing, monitoring and treatment needed to ensure human health when reclaimed wastewater is consumed for potable purposes. Some engineering and public health professionals oppose in principle to the reuse of wastewater for potable purposes, because standard public health philosophy and engineering practice call for using the purest source possible for drinking water.1 Others worry that existing techniques might not discover all the chemical and microbial contaminants that may be present in reclaimed wastewater. Several guidelines pertaining to potable reuse of wastewater have been issued, but these guidelines o ffer conflicting guidance on whether potable is adoptable and, when it is adoptable, what safeguards should be in place. 1.2 The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Water Resources Earth is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Blue PlanetÃ¢â¬ because water is discovered in many places on Earth including in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth and within rocks below the surface. The total volume of water on the planet is about 1,360,000,000 km3. About 71 percent of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface is covered with water, and the oceans hold about 97 percent of all EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s water. Figure 1.1 illustrates the approximate distribution of the locations of water on Earth, of which only about 3 percent of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s water is classified as freshwater and only about 0.91 percent is discovered in freshwater lakes, swamps, rivers and groundwater supplies available for human consumption. Figure 1.1 Distribution of water in the hydrosphere. The water cycle or hydrologic cycle describes the continuous movement of water within the hydrosphere. This indicates the cyclic movement of water evaporated from water surfaces, land surfaces and snow fields or evapotranspiration from land plants and animals to the atmosphere. Atmospheric moisture condenses into clouds and precipitated to the earth as rain, snow, hail or in some other form. Once the precipitated water has fallen to Earth, it may percolate through soil strata to form groundwater aquifers or runs off into streams, lakes, ponds and the sea. Groundwater and surface water drain toward the sea for recycling. Many sub-cycles to the global-scale hydrologic cycle exist, involving the managed transport of water, such as an aqueduct. Wastewater reuse, reclamation and recycling have become important elements of the hydrologic cycle in industrial, agricultural and urban areas. Figure 1.2 illustrates an overview of the cycling of water from ground water and surface water resources to water treatment plants, industrial, irrigation, municipal application, and to wastewater reclamation and reuse facilities. Figure 1.2 Water reuse application. 1.1Types of Water Reuse When considering the reuse of treated wastewater for potable purposes, critical distinctions must be made between Ã¢â¬Å"indirectÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"directÃ¢â¬ potable reuse and between Ã¢â¬Å"unplannedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"plannedÃ¢â¬ potable reuse. The key distinction between indirect and direct potable reuse is that direct potable reuse does not make use of any environmental barrier. In other words, simply sending treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment facility directly to a potable water-supply distribution system or a potable source treatment facility. This practice is rarely use because of the increased potential risk to public health and the negative public perception. Indirect potable reuse is that the purified reclaimed water is pumped into a raw water supply, such as an underground aquifer or in potable water storage reservoirs, resulting in mixing, dilution and assimilation, thus providing an environmental buffer. Indirect potable reuse can be unplanned and planned. Unplanned indirect potable reuse occurs continuously in the environment. This results when a water supply has a natural source that contains unintentional addition of wastewater. Planned indirect potable reuse is common practice to artificially recharge water supply sources with reclaimed water derived from treated wastewater. The water receives additional treatment prior to distribution. The reason that indirect potable reuse is not considered to cause a health risk is that the treated wastewater benefits from natural treatment from storage in surface water and groundwater aquifer before abstraction to ensure good water quality. 1.2Overview of Wastewater Treatment Technology The problems surrounding wastewater reuse are essentially related to public health. Only in unusual situations do the substances in sewage significantly downgrade the value of water for other purposes. Many diseases are caused by organisms that may be present in wastewater. In addition, there are many toxic and carcinogenic substances present in wastewater at levels that may or may not be adequate to cause disease. The effective wastewater treatment technology to meet water quality requirements for wastewater reuse applications and to protect public health is a crucial element for wastewater reuse system. Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes and operations to eliminate solids, organic matter, pathogens, metals and sometime nutrients from wastewater.2 Common terms used to define different degrees of treatment, in sequence of increasing treatment level are preliminary, primary, secondary, tertiary and/or advanced treatment. In some regions, disinfection step for control pathogenic organisms sometimes follows the last treatment step. Figure 1.3 shows a generalized wastewater treatment diagram. Figure 1.3 Generalized flow diagram for conventional wastewater treatment 1.1.1 Preliminary Treatment The purpose of preliminary treatment is the removal of sands, solids and rags that would settle in channel and interfere with treatment processes. Removal of these materials is necessary to protect the operation of subsequent treatment units. Preliminary treatment of wastewater typically includes screening, grinding, grit removal, flotation, equalization and flocculation. Treatment equipment such as bar screens, comminutors and grit chambers are adopted as the wastewater first enters a wastewater treatment plant. In grit chambers, the velocity of wastewater through the chamber is retained sufficiently high, so as to avoid the settling of organic solids. Comminutors are sometimes used to supplement course screening and serve to decrease the size of particles so that they will be removed and disposed of in a landfill. 1.1.2 Primary Treatment Primary treatment is the second step in treatment and removes organic and inorganic matters from raw sewage by the physical processes. Primary treatment includes screening to trap solid matters, comminution for removal of large solids, grit removal and sedimentation by gravity to remove suspended solids. In general, about one-half of suspended solids and 20 to 50 percent of the biochemical oxygen demand are removed from the wastewater by primary treatment process. Nutrients, pathogenic organisms, trace elements and potentially toxic organic compounds that are associated with solids in wastewater can also be removed by primary treatment processes. 1.1.3 Secondary Treatment Secondary treatment systems remove the biodegradable dissolved and colloidal matter using an array of biological processes coupled with solid/liquid separation. Biological processes are engineered to provide effective microbiological metabolism of organic substrates dissolved or suspended in wastewater.2 Part of the organic matter is oxidized by the microorganisms, thereby producing carbon dioxide and other end products. The remaining organic matter in wastewater provides the materials and energy needed to sustain the microorganism community. Secondary treatment systems can remove suspended solids and up to 95 percent of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the process, as well as certain organic compounds and significant amount of heavy metals. 1.1.4 Tertiary and/or Advanced Treatment Tertiary and/or advanced treatment is adopted when specific constituents which cannot be removed by primary and secondary treatment must be removed. In general, tertiary treatment refers to additional removal of suspended material by granular medium filtration and chemical coagulation. In other cases, advanced treatment refers to more complete removal of specific constituents, such as ammonia or nitrate removal by ion exchange or total dissolved solids removal by reverse osmosis.2 These processes essentially remove more than 99 percent of all the pollutants from wastewater, producing an almost drinking water quality. 1.1.5 Disinfection The objective of disinfection in the wastewater treatment is to destroy all pathogenic microorganisms. The major groups of pathogenic microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, amoebic cysts and protozoa. In general, disinfection can be achieved by chemical or physical method that destroys pathogens. Chemical methods are based on the addition of a strong acid, alcohol or an oxidizing chemical (such as chlorine, ozone, hydrogen peroxide or bromine). Alternatively, physical methods might include heating, incineration and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation. Disinfection is frequently combined with treatment plant design, but not effectively practiced, because of the reduced effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation or the high cost of chlorine where the water is not sufficiently clear or free of particles. 1.2 Types of Contaminants An important issue for people to understand that there are various types of contaminants that may be in your water. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water involve a wide spectrum of pathogenic organisms, inorganic chemicals and organic chemical. High concentrations of contaminants can have adverse effects to our health. 1.2.1 Pathogenic Organisms Bacterium in water, also known as pathogenic organism, is a public health hazard with risk factors in nearly all regions of the world. It is evident from the water purification attempts throughout history that human realized that drinking water could be hazardous. Several other infectious diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Bacterial diseases include Typhoid fever, Cholera, Shigellosis and Salmonellosis. Gastroenteritis, Hepatitis A and SARS are examples of viral disease. Parasitic diseases, such as Schistosomiasis, Ascariasis and Taeniasis, are also transmitted via water. 1.2.2 Inorganic Chemicals Wastewater contains many inorganics that present known or potential health risks if consumed. These contaminants include such compounds as lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nitrate and sulphate. Arsenic and lead are cumulative chemical poisons that can result in cancer, dermal lesions, peripheral neuropathies and vascular effects. 1.2.3 Organic Chemicals In a 1980 survey, a number of organic chemicals were found in water supplies. The term organic chemicals in this sense mean that they contain carbon atoms, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, aliphatic compounds, benzenes and phenols, which mean that they are derived from petroleum. Organic chemical can easily combine with human tissue which can cause damage that includes kidney, liver system problems and increased cancer risk. Chapter 2 Wastewater Reuse Criteria 2.1 Introduction The principal issue of concern for consumer of treated wastewater is the quality of this water includes its physical, biological, chemical and radiological characteristics. These concerns therefore necessitate the formulation of criteria, standards and guidelines that are appropriate for the consumers of this water.3 A first stage in establishing wastewater reuse regulations and guidelines is wastewater reuse criteria. Wastewater reuse criteria are principally directed at health and environmental protection and typically address wastewater treatment, reclaimed water quality, treatment reliability, distribution systems and use area controls.2 Wastewater reuse criteria imply an idea condition without a legal basic. Regulations and guidelines are different in that regulations are legally enforceable and spell out specific figures that can be used for enforcement and administrative action, which guidelines do not have legal basic and compliance is voluntary. In theUnited States, the Environment Protection Agency issued guidelines in 1992 that are intended to offer guidance to states, which have not developed their own regulations or guidelines. At the international level, the World Health Organization has developed guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture and aquaculture. The World Health Organization guidelines are adopted throughout the world and provide all countries with the necessary information to set their own wastewater reuse regulations or guidelines. 2.2 Wastewater Quality for Reuse Applications Table 2.1 presents general wastewater reuse applications. The types of wastewater reuse may be classified into the following six broad categories include agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial reuse, groundwater recharge, recreational and environmental, non-potable urban uses and potable reuse. Wastewater reuse can be employed to satisfy the water demand in various fields and contribute to the freshwater resources conservation. Table 2.1 Categories of Wastewater Reuse and Potential Constraints Wastewater reuse categoryaPotential constraints Agricultural and landscape irrigation Crop irrigationEffects of salts on soils and crops. Commercial nurseriesPublic health concerns, surface and groundwater pollution, marketability of crops, and public acceptance. Parks School yards Freeway medians Golf courses Cemeteries Greenbelts Residential areas Industrial reuse CoolingScaling, corrosion, biological growth, and fouling; public health concerns. Boiler feed Process water Heavy construction Groundwater recharge Groundwater replenishmentPotential toxicity of chemicals and pathogens. Salt water intrusion Subsidence control Recreational and environment Lakes and pondsHealth concerns and eutrophication. Marsh enhancement Streamflow augmentation Fisheries Snowmaking Non-potable urban uses Fire protectionPublic health, foulinf, scaling, corrosion, and biological growth. Air conditioning Toilet flushing Potable reuse Blending in water supplyPotential toxic chemicals, public health, and public acceptance. Pipe-to-pipe water supply a Arranged in descending order of anticipated volume of use. From Asano, T.D., et al., Water Environ. Technol., 4, 36, 1992. 2.2.1Wastewater Reuse for Agricultural Irrigation By far the biggest user of wastewater is agriculture throughout the entire semi-tropical and arid tropical areas of the world. Agriculture receives 67 percent of total water withdrawal and account for 86 percent of consumption in 2000. In Asia and Africa, an estimated 85 to 90 percent of all the freshwater use is for agriculture. By 2025, agriculture is anticipated to increase its water demands by 1.2 times. Therefore, wastewater reuse is important for sustainable water management. The reuse of wastewater for agriculture has some benefits as well as some disbenefits.4, 5 Benefits include the following: Source of extra irrigation water. Conservation of freshwater for other beneficial uses. Low cost source of a water supply. Alternative way to dispose of wastewater and avoid pollution and sanitary issues. Dependable, continuous water source. Effective use of plant nutrients contained in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Provides extra treatment of the wastewater before being recharged to the groundwater. Disbenefits include the following: Wastewater not properly treated can cause potential public health issues. Hazardous chemical contamination of groundwater. Certain soluble constituents in the wastewater could be present at concentrations toxic to plants. The wastewater could contain suspended solids that may plug the capillary pores in the soil as well as block nozzles in the water distribution system. Great investment in equipment and land. Regulation, guideline and criteria have been established for the reuse of wastewater for agriculture and are normally based on several parameters, such as public health protection and concentration of components in the water. These components include salinity, boron, exchangeable ions and trace metals are of particular important. Table 2.2 presents the details of guidelines for water quality to be used for agricultural irrigation. These guidelines are established by the Food and Agricultural Organization in United Nation. I. Salinity As indicated, salinity is the most influential parameter in determining the applicability of water for agricultural irrigation. Salinity refers to the presence of dissolved salts in the soil and water. Table 2.2 Guidelines for Interpretation of Water Quality for Irrigation Degree of restriction on use Potential irrigation problemUnitsNoneSlight to moderate Severe Salinity (affects crop water availability)a ECdS/m0.70.7-3.0 3.0 or, TDSmg/L450450-2000 2000 Infiltration (affects infiltration rate of water into the soil. Evaluation using EC and SAR together)b SAR= 0-3and EC =0.70.7-0.2 0.2 = 3-6and EC =1.21.2-0.3 0.3 = 6-12and EC =1.91.9-0.5 0.5 = 12-20and EC =2.92.9-1.3 1.3 = 20-40and EC =5.05.0-2.9 2.9 Specific ion toxicity (affects sensitive crops) Sodium (Na)b Surface irrigationSAR33-9 9 Sprinkler irrigationmg/L33 Chloride (Cl)c Surface irrigationmg/L44-10 10 Sprinkler irrigationmg/L33 Boron (B)mg/L0.70.7-3.0 3.0 Trace elements (See Table) Miscellaneous effects (affects susceptible crops) Nitrogen (NO3-N)dmg/L55-30 30 Bicarbonate (HCO3) (overhead sprinkling only)mg/L1.51.5-8.5 8.5 pHNormal range6.5-8.4 a EC = electrical conductivity, a measure of water salinity, report in deciSiemens per meter at 25Ã °C (dS/m) or in units millimhos per centimeter (mmho/cm). Both are equivalent. TDS = total dissolved solids, report in milligram/liter (mg/L). b SAR = sodium adsorption ratio. At a given SAR, infiltration rate increases as water salinity increases. Evaluate the potential infiltration problem by SAR as modified by EC. c For surface irrigation, most tree crops and woody plants are sensitive to sodium and chloride; use the values shown. Most annual crops are not sensitive. With overhead sprinkler irrigation and low humidity (30%) sodium and chloride may be absorbed through the leaves of sensitive crops. d NO3-N, nitrate nitrogen, reported in terms of elemental nitrogen (NH4-N and organic-N should be included when wastewater is being tested). From Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W., FAO, 7, 11, 54, 69, 1976. There are two assessments that characterize the salinity of water involving measuring total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. Total dissolved solids refers to the material left in a vessel after evaporation of a filtered water sample and subsequent placed in a drying oven at a defined temperature.6 The total dissolved solids concentration relates to the conductivity of the water. The total dissolved solid can be calculated by multiplying conductivity by a factor, but the factor is not a constant. A factor most often used in agricultural is 640. TDS (mg/L) = EC (mmho/cm or dS/m) ? 640 Electrical conductivity is other measurement that more useful than total dissolved solids because it can be made easily and instantaneously by irrigators in the field. Salts that are dissolved in water conduct electricity. Therefore, the salt in the water is related to the electrical conductivity. Table 2.3 presents general guidelines as to the salinity hazard, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. Table 2.3 General Guidelines for Salinity in Agricultural Irrigation Watera Classificationb TDS (mg/L) EC (mmhos/cm)c Water for which no detrimental effects are usually noticed500 0.75 Water that can have detrimental effects on sensitive crops500-1000 0.75-1.50 Water that can have adverse effects on many crops, requiring careful management practices1000-2000 1.50-3.00 Water that can be used for tolerant plants on permeable soils with careful management practices2000-5000 3.00-7.50 a Normally only of concern in arid and semiarid parts of the country. b Crops vary greatly in their tolerance to salinity (TDS or EC). c EC = electrical conductivity. Adapted from USEPA, Office of Water Program Operations, EPA-430/9-75-001, 1975. The adverse impacts of salinity can be augmented by a soil with poor characteristics (such as high evapotranspiration rates and poor drainage) that can indirectly affect the crop. The only way to control salinity hazard is by applying more water that carries off excess salt and leaches throughout the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s root zone. II. Exchangeable Cations The concentration of exchangeable cations in irrigation water must be considered. The exchangeable cations include sodium, calcium and magnesium. When sodium concentrations are high, the soil permeability is reduced and the soil structure is affected. When calcium is normally the predominant exchangeable cation in soil, the soil tends to have a granular structure which is easily worked and readily permeable. The sodium adsorption ratio has been developed to assess the degree to which sodium in irrigation water and provide an indicator of its potential deleterious effects on soil structure and permeability. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of water is defined to the equation below: where: Na+= sodium Ca2+ = calcium Mg2+ = magnesium For irrigation water containing significant values of bicarbonate, the adjusted sodium adsorption ratio is sometimes used. The equation of adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (SARadj) is defined as follow: where: pKÃ¢â¬â¢2 Ã¢â¬â pKÃ¢â¬â¢c = empirical constants p (Ca2+ + Mg2+) = negative logarithm of the calcium and magnesium ion concentration in moles/liter p (ALK)= negative logarithm of the total alkalinity in milliequivalents/liter For general crops, the tolerance value of SAR and adjusted SAR for irrigation water is 8 to 18. In fact, the calculated SAR values in the range are suitable for sensitive crops. III. Boron Boron in treated wastewater is a potential hazardous ion for agricultural irrigation at high concentrations of around 1mg/L. The sources of boron in wastewater are normally from household detergents, industrial plants and sewage system where boron fertilizers are used. However, it must be remembered that boron is essential in crop productivity at low concentrations. Boron is also one of the important micronutrients for crops to obtain a high quality and quantity crop yield. As indicated, the deleterious effects for boron can happen on crop. Such effects are dependent on crop sensitivity to boron and boron concentrations in soil. A number of crops have been tested by experiment for boron sensitivity. The boron sensitivity of selected crops is listed in Table 2.4. Table 2.4 Relative Tolerance of Crops and Ornamentals to Boron TolerantSemitolerantSensitive (4.0 mg/L of Boron)(2.0 mg/L of Boron)(1.0 mg/L of Boron) AthelSunflower, nativePecan AsparagusPotatoWalnut, black and Persian or English PalmCotton, Acala and PinaJerusalem artichoke Date palmTomatoNavy bean SugarbeetSweetpeaAmerican elm MangelRadishPlum Garden beetField peaPear AlfafaRagged-robin roseApple GladilsOliveGrape (Sultanina andMalaga) BroadbeanBarleyKadota fig OnionWheatPersimmon TurnipCornCherry CabbageMiloPeach LettuceOatApricot CarrotZinniaThornless blackberry PumpkinOrange Bell pepperAvocado Sweet potatoGrapefruit Lima beanLemon (2.0 mg/L of boron)(1.0 mg/L of boron)(0.3 mg/L of boron) Note:Relative tolerance is based on the boron concentration in irrigation water at which boron toxicity symptoms were observed when plants were grown in sand culture. It does not necessarily indicate a reduction in yield. Tolerance decreases in descending order in each column. From Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W., FAO, 7, 11, 54, 69, 1976. In United Nations, the Food and Agricultural organization issued guidelines for boron concentrations in irrigation water. The guidelines indicate that no issues will occur will occur for crops at boron concentration less than 0.75 mg/L. Between 0.75 and 2.0 mg/L of boron concentrations, increasing problem will exist, and severe problem happen at boron concentration above 2.0 mg/L. Table 2.5 presents the detailed guidelines for the allowable concentration of boron in treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Table 2.5 Limits of Boron in Irrigation Water Permissible Limits (Boron in miligrams per liter or parts per million) Crop Group Class of waterSensitiveSemitolerantTolerant Excellent0.330.671.0 Good0.33-0.670.67-1.331.0-2.0 Permissible0.67-1.01.33-2.02.0-3.0 Doubtful1.0-1.252.0-2.53.0-3.75 Unsuitable22.214.171.124 From van der Leeden, F., Troise, F.L., and Todd, D.K., The Water Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1990, 466. Wastewater treatment systems are not efficient at removing boron unless some form of treatment is carried out, such as chemical precipitation. Some management options can also be adopted to degrade the toxicity of boron in treated wastewater and improve yields. These management options are engineered to provide additional nitrogen to maximize fertility of the soil. IV. Trace Metals or Elements All wastewater sent to treatment plants contain trace elements. The source of trace element is usually from industrial plant, but wastewater from residences can also have high trace element concentrations. Trace elements normally occur in treated wastewater but at very low concentrations, usually less than a few milligrams per liter with most less than 100 micrograms per liter. Some trace elements are essential for plant and animal growth at low concentrations, but all can exhibit plant toxicity at elevated concentration. The essential trace elements in wastewater include cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc.7, 8, 9 The concentrations of trace elements in treated wastewater vary with wastewater treatment processes provided and their sources. Typically, the concentrations of trace elements in treated wastewater are in the range where negative effects are not likely to happen in short term. However, long term application of treated wastewater containing trace elements may lead to accumulation of trace elements in soil and may potentially result in groundwater contamination and plant toxicity. The range and recommended maximum concentrations of the trace elements in treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation are presented in Table 2.6. Table 2.6 Recommended Limits for Constituents in Reclaimed Water for Irrigation7 Long-Term UseShort-Term Use Constituent(mg/L) (mg/L) Remarks Trace Heavy Metals Aluminium5.0 20.0 Can cause nonproductivity in acid soils, but soils at pH 5.5 to 8.0 will precipitate the ion and eliminate toxicity. Arsenic0.10 2.0 Toxicity to plants varies widely, ranging from 12 mg/L forSudangrass to less than 0.05 mg/L for rice. Beryllium0.10 0.5 Toxicity to plants varies widely, ranging from 5 mg/L for kale to 0.5 mg/L for bush beans. Boron0.75 2.0 Essential to plant growth, with optimum yields for many obtained at a few-tenths mg/L in nutrient solutions. Toxic to many sensitive plants (e.g., citrus) at 1 mg/L. Usually sufficient quantities in reclaimed water to correct soil deficiencies. Most grasses relatively tolerant at 2.0 to 10 mg/L. Cadmium0.01 0.05 Toxic to beans, beets, and turnips at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L in nutrient solution. Conservative limits recommended. Chromium0.1 1.0 Not generally recognized as essential growth element. Conservative limits recommended due to lack of knowledge on toxicity to plants. Cobalt0.05 5.0 Toxic to tomato plants at 0.1 mg/L in nutrient solution. Tends to be inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils. Copper0.2 5.0 Toxic to a number of plants at 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L in nutrient solution. Fluoride1.0 15.0 Inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils. Iron5.0 20.0 Not toxic to plants in aerated soils, but can contribute to soil acidification and loss of essential phosphorus and molybdenum. Lead5.0 10.0 Can inhibit plant cell growth at very high concentrations. Lithium2.5 2.5 Tolerated by most crops at up to 5 mg/L; mobile in soil. Toxic at citrus at low doses Ã¢â¬â recommended limit is 0.075 mg/L. Table 2.6 (continued) Recommended Limits for Constituents in Reclaimed Water for Irrigation Long-Term UseShort-Term Use Constituent(mg/L) (mg/L)Remarks Trace Heavy Metals Manganese0.2 10 Toxic to a number of crops at a few-tenths to a few mg/L in acid soils. Molybdenum0.01 0.05 Nontoxic to plants at normal concentrations in soil and water. Can be toxic to livestock if forage is grown in soils with high levels of available molybdenum. Nickel0.2 2 Toxic to a number of plants at 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L; reduced toxicity at neutral or alkaline pH. Selenium0.02 0.02 Toxic to plants at low concentrations and to livestock if forage is grown in soils with low levels of added selenium. Tin, Tungsten, Titanium2 2 Effectively excluded by plants; specific tolerance levels unknown. Vanadium0.1 1 Toxic to many plants at relatively low concentrations. Zinc2 10 Toxic to many plants at widely varying concentrations; reduced toxicity at increased pH (6 or above) and in fine-textured or organic soils. Other Parameters ConstituentRecommended Limit Remarks pH6 Most effects of pH on plant growth are indirect (e.g., pH effects on heavy metalsÃ¢â¬â¢ toxicity described above). TDS500-2000 mg/L Below 500mg/L, no detrimental effects are usually noticed. Between 500 and 1000 mg/L, TDS in irrigation water can affect many crops and careful management practices should be followed. Above 2000 mg/L, water can be used regularly only for tolerant plants on permeable soils. Free Chlorine Residual1 mg/L The secondary treatment processes vary in their effectiveness at the removal of significant trace elements. However, advance treatment process such as carbon adsorption and chemical coagulation can remove over 90 percent of the trace elements from the wastewater. As indicated, some trace elements are toxic at elevated concentrations. Cadmium, copper and molybdenum can be hazardous to animals at concentration too low to affect crops. Cadmium is of special concern as it can accumulate in the food chain. It does not affect ruminants in the little amounts they ingest. Most beef and milk products are unaffected by livestock ingestion of cadmium as it is stored in the kidneys and liver of the animal rather than the muscle tissues or fat. Copper is not harmful to monogastric animals but can be toxic to ruminants. However, the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s tolerance to copper increases as available molybdenum increases. Molybdenum may also be hazardous when available in the absence of copper. While zinc and nickel are a lesser concern than cadmium, copper and molybdenum. They have negative effects on plants at lower concentrations than the levels harmful to plants and animals. However, zinc and nickel toxicities are decreased as the pH is increased. 2.2.2 Wastewater Reuse for Industrial Use Treated wastewater can be an important potential source of water for many industries, particularly in water-short regions. The quantity of water used in power generation and manufacturing processes is very large and the availability of unlimited of water was considered as a prerequisite. Wastewater reuse for industrial use has many potential applications, ranging from common housekeeping options to advanced technology implementation. The reuse of wastewater for industry can be adopted through industrial processes, internal recycling and non- industrial reuse of industrial facility effluent. The major industrial categories that use treated wastewater include:7 Evaporative cooling water, Boiler feedwater, Process water, and Irrigation and maintenance of plant grounds, fire protection, and dust control. Among the various industrial users of treated wastewater, cooling water is the greatest single application. All heat from various industrial processes must be removed and the most efficient coolant is water. The water can be a once-through recirculating cooling system or cascading use of cooling water in other applications. Water quality requirements for industrial applications are related to four different issues include scaling, corrosion, biological growth and fouling, which may affect industrial process efficacy and integrity, as well as product quality. These concerns are addressed by the options summarized in Table 2.7. Table 2.7 Industrial Water Reuse: Concerns, Causes, and Treatment Options ConcernsCausesTreatment options Scalinginorganic compounds,saltsscaling inhibitor, carbon adsorption, filtration, ion exchange,blowdown rate control Corrosiondissolved and suspended solids pH imbalancecorrosion inhibitor,reverse osmosis Biological growthresidual organics, ammonia, phosphorousbiocides, dispersants, filtration Foulingmicrobial growth, phosphates, dissolved and suspended solidscontrol of scaling, corrosion, microbial growth, filtrationchemical and physical dispersants From Asano and Levine, 1998. Pathogens in treated wastewater used in industrial applications present potential health risks to workers and public from aerosols and windblown spray. Aerosols contain toxic organic compounds and bacteria, such as Legionella pneumophila, which causes LegionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. In recent years, the net quantity of water used has reduced sharply because water shortages and discharge regulations have made it necessary to treat it before disposing it away. A large quantity of this reduction is achieved by internal reuse. 2.2.3Wastewater Reuse for Recreational Use The treated wastewater may serve a variety of recreational applications include swimming, boating and fishing. The appearance of treated wastewater is essential when it is used, and treatment for nutrient removal may be adopted. Without nutrient control, there is a potential issue for algae blooms, resulting in odors and eutrophic conditions. The criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater for recreational purposes will vary with the potential for human contact, as well as the sources of the secondary pollutants, such as body discharges, air contaminants and sewage. The criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater to be used for recreational applications can be subdivided into the following three groups. I. Elementary Body Contact Recreational Water This group of treated wastewater used in situations where there is intimate contact between the human body and the water and where there is a potential risk of ingesting a large amount of water which may pose a health risk. The treated wastewater used for contact recreational purposes include swimming, waterskiing, bathing, etc. The methods of transmission of virus may happen due to ingestion of water or via the exposed mucous membranes and skin in protective ski barrier. Swimming pools have been implicated as the adenovirus pharyngitis and conjunctivitis, as well as enterovirus meningitis.10 Some of the diseases transmitted by swimming pool water are listed in Table 2.8. Table 2.8 Some Diseases Transmitted by Swimming Pool Water DiseaseCausative agent ConjunctivitisVirus Sinusitis and otitisStreptococci and Staphylococci (propagated by nasal mucus) Certain types of enteritisSome pathogens or certain viruses ingested with water Skin disease: EczemasKoch bacillus GranulomaMycobacterium marinum EpidermophytosisBrought about by the fungus that attaches itself to the skin between the toes and is contracted particularly easily when walking on areas around the pool. Typhoid feverSalmonella typhi DysenteryEntamoeba histolytica, Shigella Infectious hepatitisVirus Compiled from Reference 10 and 11. Normally, the criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater used that are adopted for this group are more stringent. For use in recreational applications where full body contact with the water is permitted, the water should be colorless, microbiologically safe and non-irritating eyes or skin. II. Secondary Body Contact Recreational Water This group of treated wastewater used includes fishing, boating, canoeing, camping, and golf course and landscape irrigation. Treated wastewater used for this category should not contain high levels of heavy metals or pathogens that accumulate in fish to degrees that pose health threat to the consumers. The recommended water quality criteria for body contact and secondary body contact are presented in Table 2.9. References 1Committee to Evaluate the Viability of Augmenting Potable Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water, Water Science and Technology Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council, Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998. 2Takashi Asano, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, Technomic Pub.,Lancaster,Pa., 1998. 3 Donald R. Rowe, Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid, Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, Fla., 1995. 4 Shuval, H. I., Water Renovation and Reuse, Academic Press,New York, 1977. 5 Rowe, D. R., K. Al-Dhowalia, and A. Whitehead, Reuse of Riyadh Treated Wastewater, Project No. 18/1402, King Saud University, The College of Engineering Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1988. 6 USPHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 15th ed., American Public Health Association,Washington,D.C., 1980. 7 USEPA, Manual Ã¢â¬â Guidelines For Water Reuse, EPA/625/R-92/004, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Enforcement and Compliance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., September, 1992. 8Ayers, R. S. and D. W. Westcot, Water Quality for Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome, 1976. 9USEPA, Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater, EPA 625/1-77-008, E1, E2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October, 1977. 10 WHO, Report of a WHO Scientific Group, Human Viruses in Water, Wastewater and Soil, TRS 639, WHO, Geneva, 1979. 11 Glossary Water and Wastewater Control Engineering, 3rd ed., American Public Health Association,Washington,D.C., 1981. How to cite Wastewater reuse growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure., Essay examples
Saturday, May 2, 2020
In marketing, it is impossible to avoid consideration of marketing mix, which involves 4Ps. The 4Ps encompass: place, promotion, price and product (Viardot, 2004). This exposes one of crucial obligations of any marketing manager. That is, a marketing manager is responsible for formulating effective distribution strategy (place) in order to keep the other Ps moving (Distributionstrategy. org. , 2013). As a result, studies described distribution strategy as crucial prerequisite for success of any business (Chapter 15: Product Distribution, n. d. ). It is a plan of actions employed to move service/product from the manufacturer to the end consumers through different approaches such as physical distribution and distribution channels. Generally, it tries to describe where and how customers purchase firmÃ¢â¬â¢s service/products. Distribution strategy focuses on various factors, which encompass: location of the firm and target market, approaches of reaching the target market, warehousing, as well as transportation. In this paper, distribution strategy critically discussed besides evaluating how it used in consumer market. Channel intermediaries are firms or individuals such as wholesalers, agents, brokers, or retailers who help move a product from the producer to the consumer or business user. A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s channel decisions directly affect every other marketing decision. Place decisions, for example, affect pricing. Marketers that distribute products through mass merchandisers such as Wal-Mart will have different pricing objectives and strategies than will those that sell to specialty stores. Distribution decisions can sometimes give a product a distinct position in the market.The choice of retailers and other intermediaries is strongly tied to the product itself. Manufacturers select mass merchandisers to sell middle price ranged products while they distribute top-of-the-line products through high-end department and specialty stores. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s sales force and communications decisions depend on how much persuasion, training, motivation, and support its channel partners need. Whether a company develops or acquires certain new products may depend on how well those products fit the capabilities of its channel members. Some companies pay too little attention to their distribution channels.
Sunday, March 22, 2020
Autism Autism Throughout the years the diagnosis of autism has changed dramatically. Once, it was mistakenly diagnosed as childhood schizophrenia. Now that much more extensive research has been done, researchers have found distinct characteristics that are typical of autistic individuals. It is most often characterized by difficulty in the child's ability to respond to people, events, and objects. Responses to sensations of light, sound, and feeling may be exaggerated. Delayed speech and language may be associated. Other characteristics include: impairment in ability to make peer friendships, absence of imaginative activity, stereotyped body movements, persistent preoccupation with parts of objects, marked distress over changes in trivial aspects of the environment, unreasonable insistence on following routines in precise detail, a restricted range of interests and a preoccupation with one narrow interest, along with many others. Although certain characteristics are typical of autistic children, the diagnosis is a multidisciplinary effort. The diagnosis requires a team of professionals because of the many unique characteristics and behaviors of the autistic child Each professional is assigned a different behavior to monitor. However, the psychiatrist and the psychologist are mainly responsible for the diagnosis and the psychological evaluations involved. The onset of this condition is usually observed within the first two and a half years. In 1968, the APA referred to autism as a single disorder, and now it is known to be a syndrome of behavioral and medical effects. Along with autism, several related disorders are grouped under Pervasive Developmental Disorders, PDD, a general category which is characterized by severe and pervasive impairment in several areas of development. The standard reference is known as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, DSM, which is now in its fourth edition. The DSM classifies the different types of PDD which are often mistaken as autism. The other PDD are Asperger's Disorder, Rett's Disorder, Childhood Disintegrative Disorder, and Pervasive Developmental Disorder-Not Otherwise Specified, PDD-NOS, which is commonly referred to as atypical autism. The term autistic spectrum disorder is frequently used to acknowledge the diversity and severity of autism . The characteristics and symptoms of autism can present themselves in a wide variety of combinations. There is no standard type and no suc h thing as a typical person with autism. The most commonly used terms to describe people with autism are: autistic-like, autistic tendencies, autistic spectrum, high functioning, or low functioning, and more-abled or less-abled. Autistic disorder is also know as Infantile Autism or Kanner's Syndrome. Most children with this condition exhibit poor social skills, and impaired cognitive functioning and language. What is it that causes this national crisis, affecting over 400,000 families, and costing the nation over 13 billion dollars. Autism is the third most common developmental disorder, more common than Down Syndrome, multiple sclerosis, or cystic fibrosis, and autism research still receives less than 5% of the funding of the other diseases. With the lack of funding, researchers from all over the world are spending a considerable amount of time and energy trying to find answers. A single specific cause of autism is still not known. The most current research links autism to neurological or biological differences in the brain, and in many families a pattern of autism or autism related disabilities appears. This could suggest that autism has a genetic basis, although no specific gene has been directly linked t o autism. Researchers believe that a genetic basis would be highly complex, involving a combination of several genes. Direct causes have not been discovered, but several theories has been proven false. Autism is not a mental disorder, children with autism are not unruly kids who choose not to behave. Autism is not caused by bad parenting, and no known psychological factors in child development have been proven to cause autism. Children with autism begin to show signs of this disease at around the age of two. This is when parents may notice delays in language, play, or social interaction. One of the many problems autistic children have is with social detachment and unresponsiveness. Autistic babies do not smile at there parents or reach out to be cuddled or picked up. They often do not play with other children, appearing to be in there their own world, unaware of people or events around them. Many children
Friday, March 6, 2020
Laura Clay, Southern Womens Suffrage Leader Laura Clay Facts Known for: major Southern woman suffrage spokesperson. Clay, like many Southern suffragists, saw womens suffrage as reinforcing white supremacy and power.Occupation: reformerDates: February 9, 1849 - June 29, 1941 Laura Clay Biography Laura Clay Quote: Suffrage is Gods cause, and God leads our plans. Laura Clays mother was Mary Jane Warfield Clay, from a wealthy family prominent in Kentucky horse racing and breeding, herself an advocate of womens education and womens rights. Her father was the noted Kentucky politician Cassius Marcellus Clay, a cousin of Henry Clay, who founded an anti-slavery newspaper and helped found the Republican party. Cassius Marcellus Clay was the United States ambassador to Russia for 8 years under Presidents Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant. He returned from Russia for a time and is credited with talking Lincoln into signing the Emancipation Proclamation. Laura Clay had five brothers and sisters; she was the youngest. Her older sisters were involved in working for womens rights. Mary B. Clay, one of her older sisters, organized Kentuckys first womens suffrage organization, and was president of the American Woman Suffrage Association from 1883 to 1884. Laura Clay was born at her familys home, White Hall, in Kentucky, in 1849. She was the youngest of four girls and two boys. Lauras mother, Mary Jane Clay, was largely in charge, during her husbands long absences, of managing the family farms and property inherited from her family. She saw that her daughters were educated. Cassius Marcellus Clay was from a wealthy slaveholding family. He became an anti-slavery advocate, and among other incidents where he was met with violent reactions to his ideas, he was once nearly assassinated for his views. He lost his seat in the Kentucky state House because of his abolitionist views. He was a supporter of the new Republican Party, and nearly became Abraham Lincolns vice president, losing that spot to Hannibal Hamlin. At the beginning of the Civil War, Cassius Clay helped organize volunteers to protect the White House from a Confederate takeover, when there were no federal troops in the city. During the years of the Civil War, Laura Clay attended Sayre Female Institute in Lexington, Kentucky. She attended a finishing school in New York before returning to her family home. Her father opposed to her further education. The Reality of Womens Rights From 1865 to 1869, Laura Clay helped her mother run the farms, her father still absent as ambassador to Russia. In 1869, her father returned from Russia and the next year, he moved his four-year-old Russian son into the family home at White Hall, his son from a long affair with a prima ballerina with the Russian ballet. Mary Jane Clay moved to Lexington, and Cassius sued her for divorce on grounds of abandonment, and won. (Years later, he created more scandal when he married a 15 year old servant, probably against her will as he had to restrain her from leaving. He divorced her after she attempted suicide. That marriage ended in divorce just three years later.) Under existing Kentucky laws, he could have claimed all the property his ex-wife had inherited from her family and he could have kept her from the children; he claimed his wife owed him $80,000 for her years living at White Hall. Fortunately for Mary Jane Clay, he did not pursue those claims. Mary Jane Clay and her daughters who were still unmarried lived on the farms she inherited from her family, and were supported by the income from these. But they were aware the under the existing laws, they were able to do so only because Cassius Clay did not pursue his rights to the property and income. Laura Clay managed to attend one year of college at the University of Michigan and one semester at State College of Kentucky, leaving to put her efforts into working for womens rights. Working for Womens Rights in the South Laura Clay Quote: Nothing is so laborsaving as a vote, properly applied. In 1888, the Kentucky Woman Suffrage Association was organized, and Laura Clay was elected its first president. She remained president until 1912, by which time the name had changed to the Kentucky Equal Suffrage Association. Her cousin, Madeleine McDowell Breckinridge, succeeded her as president. As head of the Kentucky Equal Suffrage Association, she led efforts to change Kentucky laws to protect married womens property rights, inspired by the situation in which her mother had been left by her divorce. The organization also worked to have female doctors on staff at state mental hospitals, and to have women admitted to State College of Kentucky (Transylvania University) and Central University. Laura Clay was also a member of the Womens Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) and she was part of the Womans Club movement, holding state offices in each organization. While Laura Clays father had been a liberal Republican and perhaps in reaction to that Laura Clay became active in Democratic Party politics. Elected to the board of the National American Woman Suffrage Association (NAWSA), newly merged in 1890, Clay chaired the new groups membership committee and was its first auditor. Federal or State Suffrage? Around 1910, Clay and other Southern suffragists began to be uncomfortable with efforts within the national leadership to support a federal woman suffrage amendment. This, they feared, would provide a precedent for federal interference in the voting laws of Southern states which discriminated against African Americans. Clay was among those who argued against the strategy of a federal amendment. Laura Clay was defeated in her bid for reelection to the board of the NAWSA in 1911. In 1913, Laura Clay and other Southern suffragists created their own organization, the Southern States Woman Suffrage Conference, to work for state-level womens suffrage amendments, to support voting rights only for white women. Probably hoping for compromise, she supported federal legislation to allow women to vote for members of Congress, providing the women otherwise qualified as voters in their states. This proposal was debated at NAWSA in 1914, and a bill to implement this idea was introduced into Congress in 1914, but it died in committee. In 1915-1917, like many of those involved in womens suffrage and womens rights, including Jane Addams and Carrie Chapman Catt, Laura Clay was involved in the Womans Peace Party. When the United States entered World War I, she left the Peace Party. In 1918, she briefly joined in supporting a federal amendment, when President Wilson, a Democrat, endorsed it. But then Clay resigned her membership in the NAWSA in 1919. She also resigned from the Kentucky Equal Rights Association that she had headed from 1888 to 1912. She and others formed, instead, a Kentucky-based Citizens Committee to work for a suffrage amendment to the Kentucky state constitution. In 1920, Laura Clay went to Nashville, Tennessee, to oppose ratification of the woman suffrage amendment. When it (barely) passed, she expressed her disappointment. Democratic Party Politics Laura Clay Quote: I am a Jeffersonian Democrat. In 1920, Laura Clay founded the Democratic Womens Club of Kentucky. That same year was a delegate to the Democratic National Convention. Her name was placed in nomination for President, making her the first woman so nominated at a major partys convention. She was nominated in 1923 as a Democratic candidate for the Kentucky State Senate. In 1928, she campaigned in Al Smiths presidential race. She worked after 1920 for repeal of the 18th Amendment (prohibition), even though she herself was a teetotaler and a WCTU member. She was a member of the Kentucky state convention that ratified repeal of prohibition (the 21st Amendment), primarily on states rights grounds. After 1930 After 1930, Laura Clay led mostly a private life, focusing on reform within the Episcopal church, her lifelong religious affiliation. She interrupted her privacy to oppose a law paying male teachers more than female teachers would be paid. She worked mostly within the church on womens rights, especially on allowing women to be delegates to church councils, and on permitting women to attend the Episcopal churchs University of the South. Laura Clay died in Lexington in 1941. The family home, White Hall, is a Kentucky historical site today. Laura Clays Positions Laura Clay supported womens equal rights to education and to the vote. At the same time, she believed that black citizens were not yet developed enough to vote. She did support, in principle, educated women of all races getting the vote, and spoke at times against ignorant white voters. She contributed to an African American church project aimed at self-improvement. But she also supported states rights, supported the idea of white superiority, and feared federal interference in Southern states voting laws, and so, except briefly, did not support a federal amendment for woman suffrage. Connections The boxer Muhammed Ali, born Cassius Marcellus Clay, was named for his father who was named for Laura Clays father. Books About Laura Clay Paul E. Fuller. Laura Clay and the Womans Rights Movement 1975.John M. Murphy. Laura Clay (1894-1941), a Southern Voice for Womans Rights. Women Public Speakers in the United States, 1800-1925: A Bio-Critical Sourcebook. Karlyn Kohrs Campbell, ed. 1993.
Tuesday, February 18, 2020
Early Sunday Morning by Edward Hopper - Essay Example In the painting, the sky is clearly seen with no clouds in sight, just a little white fuzz at the right. The shadows being cast by objects indicate the sun is rising from the right side. The streets are empty with only a fire hydrant and a barberÃ¢â¬â¢s post appearing at the front of the shops. None of the shops are open too indicating that Edward was taking a walk quite early in the morning. The building in view is a two story building expanding across the length of the street. It seems to have residences at the top and shops at the bottom. The residences are brick red with rectangular windows both open and closed. In the windows are curtains. Some are white, while others are yellow. The shops are a darker green with large windows. Accesses to the residences are not shown. As the building ends towards the right, Edward cuts off the window at the top and the shopÃ¢â¬â¢s window. He intended to show that the building was still continuing. This may be true for both sides. On the top right, there is a dark shadow cast by a taller building. This may have been a newer structure and not part of the original building. It looks greatly out of place. Given the fact that the painting was painted during the time in small towns were being replaced by big cities with taller looming structures, this brings that reality to the painting. The darkness in that section is a sort of foreshadow of what will eventually happen to the small street, be replaced by taller buildings. The colours used in the painting also help in making the painting.