Tuesday, August 25, 2020
Control Theory Corporate Crime Essay Struggle hypothesis essentially contends that it is simply the monetary arrangement of private enterprise that produces wrongdoing in any case, so as to comprehend the reasons for corporate wrongdoing, the neoliberal structure and its use must be inspected. Neoliberalism agrees the state not to mediate or direct the market, and in actuality produces disparity yet in particular wrongdoing. Criminal acts are carried out by the elites that are following the center of the neoliberal tenet which is amplifying benefits while limiting expenses. Corporate violations are submitted by administrators or official officials n sake of partnerships to assist their own advantages or the enthusiasm of the associations. These violations can bring about hurting the common laborers which may comprise of workers, purchasers, investors, or the overall population (Snider, 2005; pg 170). These wrongdoings fluctuate from promoting risky items, keeping up dangerous work environments, swindling laborers, natural contamination, value fixing, hostile to confide in infringement and different acts of neglect (Passas, 2005; pg 773). The investigation and understandings of the causes to corporate wrongdoing is vital to Criminology since it costs society harshly and involves; physical costs, budgetary costs, natural amage, sabotages the just framework and subverts financial development. Nonetheless, these wrongdoings stay unpunished on the grounds that neoliberal information claims permit these demonstrations to stay undetectable, unregulated, killed, hard to indict, equivocal in the law and in criminal status and have an absence of obligation. Marxism speculates that society is organized dependent on the relationship of individuals to the creation of material merchandise. At the end of the day, the individuals who own the methods for creation additionally control the works, government officials just as the advancement of criminal and monetary law. Following the Marxist discernment, this exposition will contend that corporate wrongdoing isn't caused yet rather it is a side-effect of the neoliberal structure elites oversee society by. We will compose a custom paper test on Control Theory Corporate Crime explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Control Theory Corporate Crime explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Control Theory Corporate Crime explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer THE POWER OF THE NEOLIBEARL DOCTRINE To start with, the neoliberal structure was intended to profit people and associations of world class status which permitted them to pick up autonomy and force from the state. This at that point permits them to participate in criminal activites and Justify them as reacting to serious powers from the market. Neoliberalism concurs the legislature a functioning job in making sure about and delivering the conditions for the market ut differs unequivocally with government mediation Codi, 2008; pg 67), which implies the business sectors must be liberated to follow their interior rationale which is benefit. This implies so as to reduce expenses; the most reasonable methods might be an unlawful methods. Key elites in the New World economy have contributed billions of dollars, notorieties and the intensity of country states in getting certain translations (of laws, issues, logical information) acknowledged and others dismissed these cases are called neoliberal information claims (Snider, 2005; pg 181). Besides, they push for certain nterpretation of laws of how to oversee the market as per the neoliberal benefits in various manners. For instance, deciphering logical information in manners that demonstrate hereditarily designed plants are sheltered, merits a trillion dollars to the transnational organizations that hold the licenses on this hereditary material and to the country states which grantee their authenticity (Snider, 2005; pg 181). Then again, disparity is all the more firmly identified with the acknowledgment of the neoliberal belief system and its partnered philosophy of globalization; for example, representatives terrified of losing beneficiary Jobs to third world works are bound to acknowledge lower wage Jobs, hazardous work conditions and more elevated levels of abuse (Snider, 2004; pg 266). The neoliberal system (that supports master business conduct) permits organizations to use whatever implies conceivable so as to expand benefits which may bring about abusing the regular workers in an innumerable number of ways; from prompting them to devour hurtful items to constraining them to capitulate to perilous working conditions. This outcome in a contention between the way of life of rivalry and moral gauges be that as it may, orporations dislike people they are fake legitimate elements with unending life contracted by the legislature for their reality (Nadar, 2004; pg 8). Companies have accomplished a status where they have every single sacred right that individuals have aside from the privilege against self-implication. Companies take part in criminal activites on various levels that damage and influence the overall population in any case, people in general generally stays uninformed of these activites in light of the fact that these elites put resources into concealing reality which along these lines renders their activities undetectable. THE INVISBALITY OF COPRORATE CRIME Secondly, Marxists contend that is it the associated capacity of the ground-breaking to control estimations of society which is the reason corporate violations are rendered undetectable. Scholastics think that its hard to break down corporate wrongdoing since enormous scope review information isn't accessible so scientists need to depend on non-target wrongdoing insights gathered by fair government offices, for example, StatsCan or the Home Office which for the most part yield small examples (Snider, 2005; pg 186). Companies don't need humanist exploring their strategic approaches, not at all like conventional guilty parties they can oppose such invasions. Then again, the Justice office generally has a deficient financial plan for examined not to mention indicting corporate wrongdoings. Police offices can't stay aware of the geographic bounders of exploitation, the portability of the guilty parties and the complexities of the violations since they as a rule include researching and arraigning simultaneously and furthermore broad information on the corporate foundation which policing organizations, for an explanation, are not prepared for (Schlegel et al. 1999; pg 15). As indicated by Marxism, the law is created and executed by the elites to control the regular workers and rime is a result of class-based disparity, the policing organizations are supported by the administration which are vigorously impacted by the elites consequently, struggle hypothesis declares that criminal law is intended to focus on the common laborers so as to secure the interests of the elites. Then again, not at all like road wrongdoing there is a general absence of media consideration concerning corporate Wrongdoings in any case, in the uncommon occurrence that these cases are nature (Williams, 2008; pg 474) these are balances, which deliberately neglecting their status as violations. Business culture from the neoliberal structure ot just gives motivations to take part in unlawful activites yet in addition contains defenses that can be utilized to kill moral limitations; this is a piece of the neoliberal information claims. For example, when corporate Wrongdoings do surface to the publics consideration they are immediately killed as mishaps, confined scenes, rotten ones or willful assent. Mishaps are depicted as unintended, unexpected and unavoidable occasions that couldn't be sensibly forestalled (Williams, 2009-04-21). Disconnected scenes are when associations or people quickly withdraw from their typical moral practices and participate in criminal ctivites (Williams, 2009-04-21). Also, rotten ones is a hypothesis of defilement that states the issue of an individual taking part in unfortunate behavior instead of the division in general, which implies an absence of duty (Williams, 2008; pg 476). Last, intentional assent is a balance for hurts caused on representatives that work in hazardous enterprises, the damages are killed by expressing that those workers agreed to those dangers and conditions in any case, the organization might not have completely reveal all the dangers and damages (Williams, 2009-04-21). Corporate wrongdoing is fundamental owever; its capacity to kill its crime and describe it as uncommon mishaps or exceptional bad behaviors permits it to proceed undoubtedly. Notwithstanding balances, in the uncommon occasion that corporate wrongdoing is indicted, one of the most widely recognized methods of separated corporate wrongdoing from road wrongdoing is to point at the absence of Mens Rea which is the criminal plan to incur hurt (Schlegel et al. , 1999; pg 17). By and by, clear cognizant choices are made when decreasing work environment security financial plans, quality control subsidizing and so on with the information cap with these choices human life might be hurt in any case, since organizations are viewed as generic, nondescript and complex elements which brings about an absence of duty and along these lines the damages are excused on the grounds that there is no complete method of knowing whether the purpose was there. Additionally, on the grounds that elites have the assets and are finically prepared they put resources into concealing these certainties. THE FAILURE OF REGULATION Moreover, the neoliberal structure declares that the market remain deregulated, with that deregulation, companies keep on taking part in criminal activites until hello collect awkward nature that add to finical emergency, the legislature should then intercede with guidelines in any case, those guidelines are immediately expelled by corporate impact. History of guideline in Canada was frail from its underlying endeavor at controlling the market. To begin with, Canadas Combines Investigation Act was intended to forestall rivalry in the market and to do so it condemned corporate restraining infrastructures (organizations that predominant explicit items or administrations in the market), mergers and pri
Saturday, August 22, 2020
The distinctions of local psychological oppression and global fear mongering The United States Code (2010) characterizes local psychological oppression as exercises that- (An) include demonstrations risky to human life that are an infringement of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State; (B) give off an impression of being proposed (I) to threaten or force a non military personnel populace; (ii) to impact the arrangement of an administration by terrorizing or pressure; or (iii) to influence the lead of an administration by mass decimation, death, or capturing; and (C) happen basically inside the regional ward of the United States. The United States Code (2010) proceeds to characterize worldwide fear based oppression as exercises that- (An) include savage acts or acts perilous to human life that are an infringement of the criminal laws of the United States or of any State, or that would be a criminal infringement whenever perpetrated inside the purview of the United States or of any State; (B) seem, by all accounts, to be planned (I) to scare or force a regular citizen populace; (ii) to impact the strategy of an administration by terrorizing or compulsion; or (iii) to influence the direct of an administration by mass demolition, death, or hijacking; and (C) happen fundamentally outside the regional ward of the United States, or rise above national limits as far as the methods by which they are practiced, the people they seem expected to threaten or pressure, or the area wherein their culprits work or look for haven. In what ways is it practically not quite the same as universal psychological oppression? Practically local fear mongering happens inside the limits of the United States while universal psychological oppression happens outside United States limits and purview. Likewise, recognize residential fear based oppression from above versus local psychological warfare from underneath. Give models. Psychological oppression from above happens when people who are lawfully enabled either clandestinely or clearly use, or take steps to utilize, political brutality to keep up or guard political force inside their local outskirts, or to look after, protect, topple, or sabotage the political intensity of different countries inside the worldwide network. Fear mongering from beneath happens when people use, or take steps to utilize, political viciousness either to sabotage or topple existing legislative approaches or structures, or to scare people and gatherings they see as threatening to the social, political, financial, or ideological business as usual (Vohryzek-Bolden et al, 2001, p. 11-12). Rearranged, fear mongering from above is the point at which an administration incurs dread on the individuals and psychological warfare from underneath is the point at which the individuals defy the legislature. Psychological warfare from beneath is generally low tech and involves things easy to relate. Some particular types of psychological warfare that typically fall into fear mongering from beneath are death, filthy bombs, mobs, and burnings. Fear mongering from above can be all the more innovative and can utilize things not effectively possible by people. Structures that normally fall into fear mongering from above would be detainment, mass slaughter, and atomic and natural weapons. A few cases where household psychological warfare from beneath have occurred in late United States history are; the World Trade Center Bombing that happened on February 26, 1993, the Oklahoma City Bombing that happened on April 19, 1995, and the multi year long slaughtering binge of the Unabomber from 1978 until catch in 1996. The Ku Klux Klan additionally dedicated numerous demonstrations of psychological oppression from underneath against African Americans, Jews and Roman Catholics over a multi year time frame. Fear based oppression from above happened when the primary Americans beginning driving out the Native American Indians and kept on doing as such since the beginning restricting them to where they could live, work, and love. Different instances of fear mongering from above is the 1994 Rwandan Genocide that killed more than 800,000 individuals through the span of 100 days and the Holocaust where the Nazis killed more than 6 million Jews during World War II. Test Question 2 2. Sum up the ways to deal with political viciousness as displayed by Mao Tse-Tung, Che Guevara, Carlos Marighella, and Frantz Fanon. Which household fear bunches from an earlier time or present would you relate to these various methodologies? Clarify your position. Sum up the ways to deal with political viciousness as displayed by Mao Tse-Tung, Che Guevara, Carlos Marighella, and Frantz Fanon. Mao Tse Tung, Che Guevara, and Carlos Marighella meant well about utilizing political viciousness. These individuals had adjusted guerrilla fighting to particularly country and urban areas; suggested that dread was to be utilized as an approach to change existing political structures and change them into Marxist legislative frameworks; and confirmed that fear was a device to be utilized uniquely to topple the abusers of intensity, never against guiltless regular citizens. Then again, Franz Fanon updated their strategies by asserting that dread was a helpful, legitimate methods for accomplishing opportunity and, sometimes, for going about as a purifying power important to endurance. From there on, a few fear mongers had formulated an adaptation of their ideas that dread was not just to be utilized as a way to increase an end, yet rather as an end unto itself (Vohryzek-Bolden et al, 2001, p. 69-70). Which residential dread gatherings from an earlier time or present would you relate to these various methodologies? Clarify your position. Like Mao, Guevara and Marighella, the extended clashes Irish Republican Army (IRA) and, all the more as of late, the Provisional Irish Republican Army (PIRA) of Northern Ireland have comparable approaches to manage political brutality. The difficulties among England and Ireland are hundreds of years old; the autonomous Irish Free State, in any case, was not built up until 1920, following quite a while of battle by the unlawful Irish Republican Army, which joined fear based oppression and guerilla fighting in its fight with England. Around then, England held the to a great extent Protestant northern provinces of Ireland, called Ulster, and gave them uncommon status as a substance inside Great Britain. In spite of the fact that this segment of Ireland was fervently contradicted by the recently autonomous Irish Free State, it proceeded and built up certain authenticity throughout the years. The IRA strategies, however not its objectives, were gigantically reprimanded by the Republic of Ireland during the post-autonomy period. Selection of strategies likewise prompted the crack between the PIRA and the OIRA (Official Irish Republican Army) in the mid 1970s. The OIRA currently attempts to work for serene change, while the PIRA stays a fear monger association (Maxon-Browne, 1981). The PIRAs point is to unstick the British soldiers from Ulster and join this region with the Republic. Through bombings in England and assaults on British fighters in England and Northern Ireland, it would like to wear out British protection from unification. Every year there are shocking instances of the homicide of regular citizens and troopers. In 1990 a psychological militant assault against the habitation of the British executive was barely deflected, and in 1992 the IRA ventured up its crusade of dread, with visit bombings and bomb dangers. Then again, Fanons approach depends on the conviction that through savagery the mistreated people groups of Algeria and different countries can free themselves of their feeling of inadequacy and from [their] misery and inaction; it makes [the oppressed] brave and reestablishes confidence. Fanon sees brutality as a freeing power as well as a way to make, it feasible for the majority to comprehend social realities and gives the way to them (Dobson Payne, 1982, p. 19). This was like Osama canister Laden and Al Qaidas approach. Canister Laden has utilized his binds with al-Qaida to direct an overall crusade of fear mongering. The essential objective of Bin Laden and his supporters is to free Palestine, with auxiliary objectives of expelling the Saudi decision family from force and driving Western military powers and their degenerate, Western-arranged governments from prevalently Muslim nations. Most Islamic warriors have no enthusiasm for methodologies of verification or existential ackn owledgment and no enthusiasm for Marxist speculations of liberation. Be that as it may, in one regard, their activities reverberation Fanons thoughts the demonstration of fear not just had an expressive importance for the thieves, however an existential significance also. Indeed, even self destruction can be life insisting (Coker, 2003, p. 291). Test Question 3 3. As you would see it, what were the most punctual types of fear mongering in the United States? Who were the culprits? Who were the people in question? Is your conclusion equivalent to that contained in the Vohryzek-Bolden, et al. content? Give models. Additionally, clarify whether you accept these early fear based oppressors were no better (or no more regrettable) than present day psychological militants. The greatest type of early American fear mongering in the United States happen when the recently settled British colonials caught, shipped, and exchanged dark Africans America. The culprits were the British colonials and the casualties were Blacks. I accept what the content states in that Blacks were purchased and sold and treated as property of Whites. There was a legitimate subjection framework that drove fear into constantly. Most fear based oppressor activities today, when done, possibly hurt not very many individuals regardless of whether the intended interest group is enormous, real setbacks are low contrasted with what the Blacks needed to endure. For more than 250 years blacks were constrained into subjection and tormented, beaten, starved, and treated more awful than a White man would treat his pooch. In view of the life span and seriousness of the manner in which Whites treated Blacks, it was more terrible than present day fear based oppression. Test Question 4 4. In what ways are conservative fear bunches reinforced together by prejudice, religion, and hostile to governmentalism? Likewise, what job does the option to carry weapons under the second Amendment play with these gatherings? How has Odinism become a piece of the condition for a few? In what ways are conservative dread gatherings fortified together by prejudice, religion, and against governmentalism? Demonstrations of fear based oppression have been around as long as p
Sunday, August 9, 2020
Youâre stressed. This is a season of stress. The release of Early Action decisions, for one thing. MIT finals, for another (AHHHH). Deadlines for regular decision applications to college, and, for many of my senior friends, applications to graduate schools and fellowships. My stress falls mainly under the second category, so you may wonder why Im posting and not studying. I wasnt going to blog tonight, actually; earlier this week, I resolved to spend every waking hour of my weekend either studying for my three finals (AHHHH), sleeping, eating, showering (hygiene is important, kids) or taking a (very) brief study break. But something whisked me away from studying that I cant help but share with all of you the first thing I did upon getting home was log onto the admissions blogger interface. I need to tell you a story, prospective students and fellow MIT-ers and whoever else is reading this: you, who are stressed. I apologize if this post sounds rushed and hastily thrown-together, but I dont have much time; at midnight, a blogger moratorium kicks in. To respect the release of Early Action decisions, we arent allowed to blog on Saturday or Sunday. It is now 11:04pm on Friday. I therefore have 56 minutes to open a little window to campus and show you how we here deal with stress. I didnt leave the dorm yesterday and this morning, cabin fever hit me hard. So, at 12:30 this afternoon, I zipped up my big poofy winter coat, tugged on gloves, and called up a friend who I havent seen in months, because were both busy and our lives never seem to overlap. He picked up on the third ring, and I asked if he wanted to go to lunch. He did. So, off we went, strolling down Mass Ave, catching up, laughing and chatting with a cold winter sun beaming down on our heads. After our Chinese food, we split up, I towards Harvard to buy a Christmas present for the French House freshmen, and he back to campus. As I got off the bus back at MIT, I found myself with a sudden overwhelming rush of energy: I sprinted all the way back to New House, and up the stairs home. There, I found stress. Lots of stress. As I mentioned, this is a season for fellowship application deadlines, and a big one was due at 5pm today. My senior friends either sat huddled over their computers or rushed back and forth between other seniors rooms, asking for advice or clarification on the wording of an essay prompt. For a little under two hours, I played proof-reader, character-count-reducer, reassurer, admirer (all my dorm-mates are ridiculously impressive people) and calculator; with three minutes to go, one of my friends needed to add up six big numbers and divide by four (dont ask why.) I have never punched numbers into my phone so fast. Finally, they all pressed submit, and it was over. Exhale. At 5:10pm, I scurried back to my room, shut the door, and whipped out my orgo notes. And studied. And studied some more. Practice test, old pset, old pset. Practice test. Brief dinner, delivered to my room by my very kind boyfriend. More studying. At 7:30, my friend Davie R. 12 asked if I was going to go carolling with other French House-ers, and I declined, explaining that I had way too much studying to do. And regretted it, as I sat in my room for the next hour, thinking about how beautifully my dorm-mates sing and how it would be my last chance to carol with many of them (including Davie, who is one of the most amazing singers I have ever come across.) At 8:30, a big group of people came past my door. It was the carollers: they were just leaving, late for some reason. I jumped up, slammed my computer shut, and accepted a packet of music. Orgo could wait. So could physics. And neuroscience. Lizi 12 baked 2+ trays of cookies, while Davie printed booklets of carols in four parts and brought along a tuning fork. We traveled around New House, from living group to living group, regaling groups of strangers with music. I was totally mortified, at first, but as people applauded and smiled and took cookies, I realized that we were cheering people up and there exists no better study break than that. We even got people to join us. Now around ten singers strong, we decided to head over to Burton Conner and continue carolling there. Out on dorm row, we sang Silent Night, and a group of passers-by joined in. Led by a resident (a friend of Lizi and Davie from concert choir I dont know who you are, but thank you!*) we made our way through the five floors of Burton-side and four floors of Conner-side, singing and delivering cookies and picking up more carollers along the way. We crashed a party. We crashed a movie night. In one lounge, a resident joined us by playing the piano. Everywhere, people were smiling and thanking us and telling us how great we sounded; one girl even filmed us. Faces peeked out of doorways. Eyes were wide. Slowly, residents gathered in the hallways to listen. And this was all totally impromptu! No substantial planning, no practice, no musical ability required. Others joined. Now around fifteen people strong, we delivered our grand finale (Hark the Herald Ang els Sing) to the Burton-Conner housemasters, who gave us chocolate and smiled wonderful delighted smiles. *Christy S. 13, apparently. Youre the best! I saw so many smiles tonight. Tonight, of all nights when people are crazed with stress and up to their necks in old papers and notebooks and binders. It was refreshing (literally; its cold out there) and rewarding and SO much fun, and I dont regret a second of it. I completely forgot my stress, somehow. It disappeared along with my voice (my vocal chords are totally burnt out.) I wanted to tell you all this because it helped me. It was soothing to get outside to talk with an old friend, to do things with people I care about, to channel my rocketing levels of stress energy into creating music for others. I thought this was probably a story worth telling on this kind of occasion. And now, its nearly midnight, so Im off; Ill re-emerge on the other side of finals, late Wednesday afternoon. A friend and I have arranged to watch The Elegant Universe after our last exam, so I have that to look forward to. Once, in high school, I was freaking out to a teacher about an upcoming bout of exams, and he described an approach that I liked; he said we would bow our heads and charge, get through it, and look up only once we reached the other side. Its almost time! Bow your head, steel your nerves, and remember that above all you are NOT in any way defined by the school you attend quite the opposite. MIT is great, but only because of the people who come here; its just a bunch of empty (kind of ugly) buildings otherwise. It is physically impossible to fit every student that the admissions office would like to fit. Therefore, some of you will go elsewhere. But that makes MIT less great, not you and it makes other schools greater, as you sling your hard work and thoughtfulne ss and energy over your shoulder and bring them elsewhere, doing the things you would have done if you were here: namely, taking advantage of every resource at hand. In the meantime, Im going to bow my head and steel my nerves as well. Waves and vibrations, organic synthesis, structure elucidation, ion channels and hormones, here I come. Lets charge together. Ready?
Saturday, May 23, 2020
People have imitated another person to be a one of a kind. People have modeled themselves on someone, doing every action they do. Bullying a person physically with fists or verbally by hurting emotions when they see someone else do it. Vandalize a property by throwing eggs and liter at someones home or business because they saw a popular person do it. Is it necessary to imitate others before they can become original and creative? To some people, they think copying someone else will make them trendy, prominent, etc. However, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have to follow someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s footsteps to become an unique individual, but to be yourself. People have become successful by coming up with their own theories, rules, and ideas. Such as Isaac Newton and his Three Laws of Motion, or Albert Einstein and his Theory of Relativity along with his equation E=mc2. While some people are seeing that hiding under someoneÃ¢â¬â¢s shadow will help them become creative and original in a way, others have chos en their own path, leading them to success with their distinctive ideas, separating them from others, sticking out and having a vast mind. Imitating someone else before becoming original and creative is wrong and that it isnt necessary to imitate others Duplicating another personÃ¢â¬â¢s personality and traits can have a negative influence on the imitator. For example, when a boy sees a popular person at his school and he wants to be popular, heÃ¢â¬â¢ll try to do what the other individual is doing. Probably because he thinksShow MoreRelatedArt As A Form Of Self Expression1378 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesArt can be a form of self-expression and a way to communicate ideas and thoughts with other people. Each time when an art work is being viewed, a resonance between the art itself the viewer is created. 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Tuesday, May 12, 2020
Ã¢â¬ËPeaceÃ¢â¬â¢ as a concept is seen through the lens of the fundamental problems faced by the world today: war, armed conflict and political violence. By insinuation, peace itself is understood predominantly as a negative concept, or as the absence of these phenomena (Atack, 2009). Martin Luther King said that Ã¢â¬ËTrue peace is not merely the absence of some negative force - tension, confusion or war; it is the presence of some positive force - justice, good will and brotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢ (King, 1957). Indeed, peace should focus on the positive social and political phenomena such as integrity, equality and wellbeing. In order to create a peaceful world, humans have to strive for positive peace, a condition brought about by establishing standards of justice, human rights, and sustainable development in beloved communities (Harris, 1996, p. 386). Gandhiji too described his ideas of peace with a focus on the positive, according to him peace includes: (i) Peace implies the capacity to live together in harmony. (ii) The creation of non-violent social systems, i.e., a society free from structural violence. (iii) The absence of exploitation and injustice of every kind. (iv) International cooperation and understanding. (v) Ecological balance and conservation. (vi) Peace of mind, or the psycho-spiritual dimension of peace. (NCERT, 2006) These positive views of peace lead us beyond the limited negative associations the notion is centered around. It is important to understand that the conceptShow MoreRelatedPolitical Philosophy And The Role It Plays Today1598 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPhilosophy? And the Role it Plays Today Savannah Dye 9/17/2015 Ã¢â¬Æ' Ã¢â¬Å"Political philosophyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"political theoryÃ¢â¬ are versatile, yet relative terms. Ironically, the most unifying aspect of both definitions is their fluidity. 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Chapter 1 Wastewater Reuse: An Overview 1.1Introduction Growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure on the development of new water resources have prompted a variety of measures to reclaim, recycle and reuse wastewater over the last two or three decades. As part of this trend, some municipalities have commenced to reuse wastewater for non-potable water needs, such as irrigation of golf courses and parks. We will write a custom essay sample on Wastewater reuse growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure. or any similar topic only for you Order Now In a little but increasing number of municipalities, these measures involve the use of treated wastewater to augment the general water supply. A major catalyst for the development of wastewater reuse, recycling and reclamation has been the need to provide alternative water resources to achieve water quantity requirement for industry, irrigation, urban potable and non-potable water applications. The benefits coupled with reusing treated wastewater for supplemental applications prior to disposal or discharge include environmental protection, preservation of high quality water resources and economic advantages. These Ã¢â¬Å"wastewater reuseÃ¢â¬ projects are made possible by reliability and effectiveness of wastewater treatment technologies that can turn municipal wastewater into reclaimed wastewater that can serve as a supplemental water resource in addition to meeting standards established by the Safe Water Drinking Act. However, important problems remain regarding the levels of testing, monitoring and treatment needed to ensure human health when reclaimed wastewater is consumed for potable purposes. Some engineering and public health professionals oppose in principle to the reuse of wastewater for potable purposes, because standard public health philosophy and engineering practice call for using the purest source possible for drinking water.1 Others worry that existing techniques might not discover all the chemical and microbial contaminants that may be present in reclaimed wastewater. Several guidelines pertaining to potable reuse of wastewater have been issued, but these guidelines o ffer conflicting guidance on whether potable is adoptable and, when it is adoptable, what safeguards should be in place. 1.2 The EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s Water Resources Earth is known as the Ã¢â¬Å"Blue PlanetÃ¢â¬ because water is discovered in many places on Earth including in the atmosphere, on the surface of the Earth and within rocks below the surface. The total volume of water on the planet is about 1,360,000,000 km3. About 71 percent of EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s surface is covered with water, and the oceans hold about 97 percent of all EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s water. Figure 1.1 illustrates the approximate distribution of the locations of water on Earth, of which only about 3 percent of the EarthÃ¢â¬â¢s water is classified as freshwater and only about 0.91 percent is discovered in freshwater lakes, swamps, rivers and groundwater supplies available for human consumption. Figure 1.1 Distribution of water in the hydrosphere. The water cycle or hydrologic cycle describes the continuous movement of water within the hydrosphere. This indicates the cyclic movement of water evaporated from water surfaces, land surfaces and snow fields or evapotranspiration from land plants and animals to the atmosphere. Atmospheric moisture condenses into clouds and precipitated to the earth as rain, snow, hail or in some other form. Once the precipitated water has fallen to Earth, it may percolate through soil strata to form groundwater aquifers or runs off into streams, lakes, ponds and the sea. Groundwater and surface water drain toward the sea for recycling. Many sub-cycles to the global-scale hydrologic cycle exist, involving the managed transport of water, such as an aqueduct. Wastewater reuse, reclamation and recycling have become important elements of the hydrologic cycle in industrial, agricultural and urban areas. Figure 1.2 illustrates an overview of the cycling of water from ground water and surface water resources to water treatment plants, industrial, irrigation, municipal application, and to wastewater reclamation and reuse facilities. Figure 1.2 Water reuse application. 1.1Types of Water Reuse When considering the reuse of treated wastewater for potable purposes, critical distinctions must be made between Ã¢â¬Å"indirectÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"directÃ¢â¬ potable reuse and between Ã¢â¬Å"unplannedÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"plannedÃ¢â¬ potable reuse. The key distinction between indirect and direct potable reuse is that direct potable reuse does not make use of any environmental barrier. In other words, simply sending treated wastewater from a wastewater treatment facility directly to a potable water-supply distribution system or a potable source treatment facility. This practice is rarely use because of the increased potential risk to public health and the negative public perception. Indirect potable reuse is that the purified reclaimed water is pumped into a raw water supply, such as an underground aquifer or in potable water storage reservoirs, resulting in mixing, dilution and assimilation, thus providing an environmental buffer. Indirect potable reuse can be unplanned and planned. Unplanned indirect potable reuse occurs continuously in the environment. This results when a water supply has a natural source that contains unintentional addition of wastewater. Planned indirect potable reuse is common practice to artificially recharge water supply sources with reclaimed water derived from treated wastewater. The water receives additional treatment prior to distribution. The reason that indirect potable reuse is not considered to cause a health risk is that the treated wastewater benefits from natural treatment from storage in surface water and groundwater aquifer before abstraction to ensure good water quality. 1.2Overview of Wastewater Treatment Technology The problems surrounding wastewater reuse are essentially related to public health. Only in unusual situations do the substances in sewage significantly downgrade the value of water for other purposes. Many diseases are caused by organisms that may be present in wastewater. In addition, there are many toxic and carcinogenic substances present in wastewater at levels that may or may not be adequate to cause disease. The effective wastewater treatment technology to meet water quality requirements for wastewater reuse applications and to protect public health is a crucial element for wastewater reuse system. Conventional wastewater treatment consists of a combination of physical, chemical and biological processes and operations to eliminate solids, organic matter, pathogens, metals and sometime nutrients from wastewater.2 Common terms used to define different degrees of treatment, in sequence of increasing treatment level are preliminary, primary, secondary, tertiary and/or advanced treatment. In some regions, disinfection step for control pathogenic organisms sometimes follows the last treatment step. Figure 1.3 shows a generalized wastewater treatment diagram. Figure 1.3 Generalized flow diagram for conventional wastewater treatment 1.1.1 Preliminary Treatment The purpose of preliminary treatment is the removal of sands, solids and rags that would settle in channel and interfere with treatment processes. Removal of these materials is necessary to protect the operation of subsequent treatment units. Preliminary treatment of wastewater typically includes screening, grinding, grit removal, flotation, equalization and flocculation. Treatment equipment such as bar screens, comminutors and grit chambers are adopted as the wastewater first enters a wastewater treatment plant. In grit chambers, the velocity of wastewater through the chamber is retained sufficiently high, so as to avoid the settling of organic solids. Comminutors are sometimes used to supplement course screening and serve to decrease the size of particles so that they will be removed and disposed of in a landfill. 1.1.2 Primary Treatment Primary treatment is the second step in treatment and removes organic and inorganic matters from raw sewage by the physical processes. Primary treatment includes screening to trap solid matters, comminution for removal of large solids, grit removal and sedimentation by gravity to remove suspended solids. In general, about one-half of suspended solids and 20 to 50 percent of the biochemical oxygen demand are removed from the wastewater by primary treatment process. Nutrients, pathogenic organisms, trace elements and potentially toxic organic compounds that are associated with solids in wastewater can also be removed by primary treatment processes. 1.1.3 Secondary Treatment Secondary treatment systems remove the biodegradable dissolved and colloidal matter using an array of biological processes coupled with solid/liquid separation. Biological processes are engineered to provide effective microbiological metabolism of organic substrates dissolved or suspended in wastewater.2 Part of the organic matter is oxidized by the microorganisms, thereby producing carbon dioxide and other end products. The remaining organic matter in wastewater provides the materials and energy needed to sustain the microorganism community. Secondary treatment systems can remove suspended solids and up to 95 percent of the biochemical oxygen demand entering the process, as well as certain organic compounds and significant amount of heavy metals. 1.1.4 Tertiary and/or Advanced Treatment Tertiary and/or advanced treatment is adopted when specific constituents which cannot be removed by primary and secondary treatment must be removed. In general, tertiary treatment refers to additional removal of suspended material by granular medium filtration and chemical coagulation. In other cases, advanced treatment refers to more complete removal of specific constituents, such as ammonia or nitrate removal by ion exchange or total dissolved solids removal by reverse osmosis.2 These processes essentially remove more than 99 percent of all the pollutants from wastewater, producing an almost drinking water quality. 1.1.5 Disinfection The objective of disinfection in the wastewater treatment is to destroy all pathogenic microorganisms. The major groups of pathogenic microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, amoebic cysts and protozoa. In general, disinfection can be achieved by chemical or physical method that destroys pathogens. Chemical methods are based on the addition of a strong acid, alcohol or an oxidizing chemical (such as chlorine, ozone, hydrogen peroxide or bromine). Alternatively, physical methods might include heating, incineration and irradiation with ultraviolet radiation. Disinfection is frequently combined with treatment plant design, but not effectively practiced, because of the reduced effectiveness of ultraviolet radiation or the high cost of chlorine where the water is not sufficiently clear or free of particles. 1.2 Types of Contaminants An important issue for people to understand that there are various types of contaminants that may be in your water. The specific contaminants leading to pollution in water involve a wide spectrum of pathogenic organisms, inorganic chemicals and organic chemical. High concentrations of contaminants can have adverse effects to our health. 1.2.1 Pathogenic Organisms Bacterium in water, also known as pathogenic organism, is a public health hazard with risk factors in nearly all regions of the world. It is evident from the water purification attempts throughout history that human realized that drinking water could be hazardous. Several other infectious diseases can be transmitted by contaminated water. Bacterial diseases include Typhoid fever, Cholera, Shigellosis and Salmonellosis. Gastroenteritis, Hepatitis A and SARS are examples of viral disease. Parasitic diseases, such as Schistosomiasis, Ascariasis and Taeniasis, are also transmitted via water. 1.2.2 Inorganic Chemicals Wastewater contains many inorganics that present known or potential health risks if consumed. These contaminants include such compounds as lead, cadmium, chromium, arsenic, nitrate and sulphate. Arsenic and lead are cumulative chemical poisons that can result in cancer, dermal lesions, peripheral neuropathies and vascular effects. 1.2.3 Organic Chemicals In a 1980 survey, a number of organic chemicals were found in water supplies. The term organic chemicals in this sense mean that they contain carbon atoms, such as chlorinated hydrocarbons, aliphatic compounds, benzenes and phenols, which mean that they are derived from petroleum. Organic chemical can easily combine with human tissue which can cause damage that includes kidney, liver system problems and increased cancer risk. Chapter 2 Wastewater Reuse Criteria 2.1 Introduction The principal issue of concern for consumer of treated wastewater is the quality of this water includes its physical, biological, chemical and radiological characteristics. These concerns therefore necessitate the formulation of criteria, standards and guidelines that are appropriate for the consumers of this water.3 A first stage in establishing wastewater reuse regulations and guidelines is wastewater reuse criteria. Wastewater reuse criteria are principally directed at health and environmental protection and typically address wastewater treatment, reclaimed water quality, treatment reliability, distribution systems and use area controls.2 Wastewater reuse criteria imply an idea condition without a legal basic. Regulations and guidelines are different in that regulations are legally enforceable and spell out specific figures that can be used for enforcement and administrative action, which guidelines do not have legal basic and compliance is voluntary. In theUnited States, the Environment Protection Agency issued guidelines in 1992 that are intended to offer guidance to states, which have not developed their own regulations or guidelines. At the international level, the World Health Organization has developed guidelines for wastewater reuse in agriculture and aquaculture. The World Health Organization guidelines are adopted throughout the world and provide all countries with the necessary information to set their own wastewater reuse regulations or guidelines. 2.2 Wastewater Quality for Reuse Applications Table 2.1 presents general wastewater reuse applications. The types of wastewater reuse may be classified into the following six broad categories include agricultural and landscape irrigation, industrial reuse, groundwater recharge, recreational and environmental, non-potable urban uses and potable reuse. Wastewater reuse can be employed to satisfy the water demand in various fields and contribute to the freshwater resources conservation. Table 2.1 Categories of Wastewater Reuse and Potential Constraints Wastewater reuse categoryaPotential constraints Agricultural and landscape irrigation Crop irrigationEffects of salts on soils and crops. Commercial nurseriesPublic health concerns, surface and groundwater pollution, marketability of crops, and public acceptance. Parks School yards Freeway medians Golf courses Cemeteries Greenbelts Residential areas Industrial reuse CoolingScaling, corrosion, biological growth, and fouling; public health concerns. Boiler feed Process water Heavy construction Groundwater recharge Groundwater replenishmentPotential toxicity of chemicals and pathogens. Salt water intrusion Subsidence control Recreational and environment Lakes and pondsHealth concerns and eutrophication. Marsh enhancement Streamflow augmentation Fisheries Snowmaking Non-potable urban uses Fire protectionPublic health, foulinf, scaling, corrosion, and biological growth. Air conditioning Toilet flushing Potable reuse Blending in water supplyPotential toxic chemicals, public health, and public acceptance. Pipe-to-pipe water supply a Arranged in descending order of anticipated volume of use. From Asano, T.D., et al., Water Environ. Technol., 4, 36, 1992. 2.2.1Wastewater Reuse for Agricultural Irrigation By far the biggest user of wastewater is agriculture throughout the entire semi-tropical and arid tropical areas of the world. Agriculture receives 67 percent of total water withdrawal and account for 86 percent of consumption in 2000. In Asia and Africa, an estimated 85 to 90 percent of all the freshwater use is for agriculture. By 2025, agriculture is anticipated to increase its water demands by 1.2 times. Therefore, wastewater reuse is important for sustainable water management. The reuse of wastewater for agriculture has some benefits as well as some disbenefits.4, 5 Benefits include the following: Source of extra irrigation water. Conservation of freshwater for other beneficial uses. Low cost source of a water supply. Alternative way to dispose of wastewater and avoid pollution and sanitary issues. Dependable, continuous water source. Effective use of plant nutrients contained in the wastewater, such as nitrogen and phosphorus. Provides extra treatment of the wastewater before being recharged to the groundwater. Disbenefits include the following: Wastewater not properly treated can cause potential public health issues. Hazardous chemical contamination of groundwater. Certain soluble constituents in the wastewater could be present at concentrations toxic to plants. The wastewater could contain suspended solids that may plug the capillary pores in the soil as well as block nozzles in the water distribution system. Great investment in equipment and land. Regulation, guideline and criteria have been established for the reuse of wastewater for agriculture and are normally based on several parameters, such as public health protection and concentration of components in the water. These components include salinity, boron, exchangeable ions and trace metals are of particular important. Table 2.2 presents the details of guidelines for water quality to be used for agricultural irrigation. These guidelines are established by the Food and Agricultural Organization in United Nation. I. Salinity As indicated, salinity is the most influential parameter in determining the applicability of water for agricultural irrigation. Salinity refers to the presence of dissolved salts in the soil and water. Table 2.2 Guidelines for Interpretation of Water Quality for Irrigation Degree of restriction on use Potential irrigation problemUnitsNoneSlight to moderate Severe Salinity (affects crop water availability)a ECdS/m0.70.7-3.0 3.0 or, TDSmg/L450450-2000 2000 Infiltration (affects infiltration rate of water into the soil. Evaluation using EC and SAR together)b SAR= 0-3and EC =0.70.7-0.2 0.2 = 3-6and EC =1.21.2-0.3 0.3 = 6-12and EC =1.91.9-0.5 0.5 = 12-20and EC =2.92.9-1.3 1.3 = 20-40and EC =5.05.0-2.9 2.9 Specific ion toxicity (affects sensitive crops) Sodium (Na)b Surface irrigationSAR33-9 9 Sprinkler irrigationmg/L33 Chloride (Cl)c Surface irrigationmg/L44-10 10 Sprinkler irrigationmg/L33 Boron (B)mg/L0.70.7-3.0 3.0 Trace elements (See Table) Miscellaneous effects (affects susceptible crops) Nitrogen (NO3-N)dmg/L55-30 30 Bicarbonate (HCO3) (overhead sprinkling only)mg/L1.51.5-8.5 8.5 pHNormal range6.5-8.4 a EC = electrical conductivity, a measure of water salinity, report in deciSiemens per meter at 25Ã °C (dS/m) or in units millimhos per centimeter (mmho/cm). Both are equivalent. TDS = total dissolved solids, report in milligram/liter (mg/L). b SAR = sodium adsorption ratio. At a given SAR, infiltration rate increases as water salinity increases. Evaluate the potential infiltration problem by SAR as modified by EC. c For surface irrigation, most tree crops and woody plants are sensitive to sodium and chloride; use the values shown. Most annual crops are not sensitive. With overhead sprinkler irrigation and low humidity (30%) sodium and chloride may be absorbed through the leaves of sensitive crops. d NO3-N, nitrate nitrogen, reported in terms of elemental nitrogen (NH4-N and organic-N should be included when wastewater is being tested). From Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W., FAO, 7, 11, 54, 69, 1976. There are two assessments that characterize the salinity of water involving measuring total dissolved solids and electrical conductivity. Total dissolved solids refers to the material left in a vessel after evaporation of a filtered water sample and subsequent placed in a drying oven at a defined temperature.6 The total dissolved solids concentration relates to the conductivity of the water. The total dissolved solid can be calculated by multiplying conductivity by a factor, but the factor is not a constant. A factor most often used in agricultural is 640. TDS (mg/L) = EC (mmho/cm or dS/m) ? 640 Electrical conductivity is other measurement that more useful than total dissolved solids because it can be made easily and instantaneously by irrigators in the field. Salts that are dissolved in water conduct electricity. Therefore, the salt in the water is related to the electrical conductivity. Table 2.3 presents general guidelines as to the salinity hazard, total dissolved solids (TDS) and electrical conductivity. Table 2.3 General Guidelines for Salinity in Agricultural Irrigation Watera Classificationb TDS (mg/L) EC (mmhos/cm)c Water for which no detrimental effects are usually noticed500 0.75 Water that can have detrimental effects on sensitive crops500-1000 0.75-1.50 Water that can have adverse effects on many crops, requiring careful management practices1000-2000 1.50-3.00 Water that can be used for tolerant plants on permeable soils with careful management practices2000-5000 3.00-7.50 a Normally only of concern in arid and semiarid parts of the country. b Crops vary greatly in their tolerance to salinity (TDS or EC). c EC = electrical conductivity. Adapted from USEPA, Office of Water Program Operations, EPA-430/9-75-001, 1975. The adverse impacts of salinity can be augmented by a soil with poor characteristics (such as high evapotranspiration rates and poor drainage) that can indirectly affect the crop. The only way to control salinity hazard is by applying more water that carries off excess salt and leaches throughout the plantÃ¢â¬â¢s root zone. II. Exchangeable Cations The concentration of exchangeable cations in irrigation water must be considered. The exchangeable cations include sodium, calcium and magnesium. When sodium concentrations are high, the soil permeability is reduced and the soil structure is affected. When calcium is normally the predominant exchangeable cation in soil, the soil tends to have a granular structure which is easily worked and readily permeable. The sodium adsorption ratio has been developed to assess the degree to which sodium in irrigation water and provide an indicator of its potential deleterious effects on soil structure and permeability. The sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) of water is defined to the equation below: where: Na+= sodium Ca2+ = calcium Mg2+ = magnesium For irrigation water containing significant values of bicarbonate, the adjusted sodium adsorption ratio is sometimes used. The equation of adjusted sodium adsorption ratio (SARadj) is defined as follow: where: pKÃ¢â¬â¢2 Ã¢â¬â pKÃ¢â¬â¢c = empirical constants p (Ca2+ + Mg2+) = negative logarithm of the calcium and magnesium ion concentration in moles/liter p (ALK)= negative logarithm of the total alkalinity in milliequivalents/liter For general crops, the tolerance value of SAR and adjusted SAR for irrigation water is 8 to 18. In fact, the calculated SAR values in the range are suitable for sensitive crops. III. Boron Boron in treated wastewater is a potential hazardous ion for agricultural irrigation at high concentrations of around 1mg/L. The sources of boron in wastewater are normally from household detergents, industrial plants and sewage system where boron fertilizers are used. However, it must be remembered that boron is essential in crop productivity at low concentrations. Boron is also one of the important micronutrients for crops to obtain a high quality and quantity crop yield. As indicated, the deleterious effects for boron can happen on crop. Such effects are dependent on crop sensitivity to boron and boron concentrations in soil. A number of crops have been tested by experiment for boron sensitivity. The boron sensitivity of selected crops is listed in Table 2.4. Table 2.4 Relative Tolerance of Crops and Ornamentals to Boron TolerantSemitolerantSensitive (4.0 mg/L of Boron)(2.0 mg/L of Boron)(1.0 mg/L of Boron) AthelSunflower, nativePecan AsparagusPotatoWalnut, black and Persian or English PalmCotton, Acala and PinaJerusalem artichoke Date palmTomatoNavy bean SugarbeetSweetpeaAmerican elm MangelRadishPlum Garden beetField peaPear AlfafaRagged-robin roseApple GladilsOliveGrape (Sultanina andMalaga) BroadbeanBarleyKadota fig OnionWheatPersimmon TurnipCornCherry CabbageMiloPeach LettuceOatApricot CarrotZinniaThornless blackberry PumpkinOrange Bell pepperAvocado Sweet potatoGrapefruit Lima beanLemon (2.0 mg/L of boron)(1.0 mg/L of boron)(0.3 mg/L of boron) Note:Relative tolerance is based on the boron concentration in irrigation water at which boron toxicity symptoms were observed when plants were grown in sand culture. It does not necessarily indicate a reduction in yield. Tolerance decreases in descending order in each column. From Ayers, R.S. and Westcot, D.W., FAO, 7, 11, 54, 69, 1976. In United Nations, the Food and Agricultural organization issued guidelines for boron concentrations in irrigation water. The guidelines indicate that no issues will occur will occur for crops at boron concentration less than 0.75 mg/L. Between 0.75 and 2.0 mg/L of boron concentrations, increasing problem will exist, and severe problem happen at boron concentration above 2.0 mg/L. Table 2.5 presents the detailed guidelines for the allowable concentration of boron in treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation. Table 2.5 Limits of Boron in Irrigation Water Permissible Limits (Boron in miligrams per liter or parts per million) Crop Group Class of waterSensitiveSemitolerantTolerant Excellent0.330.671.0 Good0.33-0.670.67-1.331.0-2.0 Permissible0.67-1.01.33-2.02.0-3.0 Doubtful1.0-1.252.0-2.53.0-3.75 Unsuitable22.214.171.124 From van der Leeden, F., Troise, F.L., and Todd, D.K., The Water Encyclopedia, 2nd ed., Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL, 1990, 466. Wastewater treatment systems are not efficient at removing boron unless some form of treatment is carried out, such as chemical precipitation. Some management options can also be adopted to degrade the toxicity of boron in treated wastewater and improve yields. These management options are engineered to provide additional nitrogen to maximize fertility of the soil. IV. Trace Metals or Elements All wastewater sent to treatment plants contain trace elements. The source of trace element is usually from industrial plant, but wastewater from residences can also have high trace element concentrations. Trace elements normally occur in treated wastewater but at very low concentrations, usually less than a few milligrams per liter with most less than 100 micrograms per liter. Some trace elements are essential for plant and animal growth at low concentrations, but all can exhibit plant toxicity at elevated concentration. The essential trace elements in wastewater include cadmium, chromium, copper, lead, mercury, molybdenum, nickel and zinc.7, 8, 9 The concentrations of trace elements in treated wastewater vary with wastewater treatment processes provided and their sources. Typically, the concentrations of trace elements in treated wastewater are in the range where negative effects are not likely to happen in short term. However, long term application of treated wastewater containing trace elements may lead to accumulation of trace elements in soil and may potentially result in groundwater contamination and plant toxicity. The range and recommended maximum concentrations of the trace elements in treated wastewater for agricultural irrigation are presented in Table 2.6. Table 2.6 Recommended Limits for Constituents in Reclaimed Water for Irrigation7 Long-Term UseShort-Term Use Constituent(mg/L) (mg/L) Remarks Trace Heavy Metals Aluminium5.0 20.0 Can cause nonproductivity in acid soils, but soils at pH 5.5 to 8.0 will precipitate the ion and eliminate toxicity. Arsenic0.10 2.0 Toxicity to plants varies widely, ranging from 12 mg/L forSudangrass to less than 0.05 mg/L for rice. Beryllium0.10 0.5 Toxicity to plants varies widely, ranging from 5 mg/L for kale to 0.5 mg/L for bush beans. Boron0.75 2.0 Essential to plant growth, with optimum yields for many obtained at a few-tenths mg/L in nutrient solutions. Toxic to many sensitive plants (e.g., citrus) at 1 mg/L. Usually sufficient quantities in reclaimed water to correct soil deficiencies. Most grasses relatively tolerant at 2.0 to 10 mg/L. Cadmium0.01 0.05 Toxic to beans, beets, and turnips at concentrations as low as 0.1 mg/L in nutrient solution. Conservative limits recommended. Chromium0.1 1.0 Not generally recognized as essential growth element. Conservative limits recommended due to lack of knowledge on toxicity to plants. Cobalt0.05 5.0 Toxic to tomato plants at 0.1 mg/L in nutrient solution. Tends to be inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils. Copper0.2 5.0 Toxic to a number of plants at 0.1 to 1.0 mg/L in nutrient solution. Fluoride1.0 15.0 Inactivated by neutral and alkaline soils. Iron5.0 20.0 Not toxic to plants in aerated soils, but can contribute to soil acidification and loss of essential phosphorus and molybdenum. Lead5.0 10.0 Can inhibit plant cell growth at very high concentrations. Lithium2.5 2.5 Tolerated by most crops at up to 5 mg/L; mobile in soil. Toxic at citrus at low doses Ã¢â¬â recommended limit is 0.075 mg/L. Table 2.6 (continued) Recommended Limits for Constituents in Reclaimed Water for Irrigation Long-Term UseShort-Term Use Constituent(mg/L) (mg/L)Remarks Trace Heavy Metals Manganese0.2 10 Toxic to a number of crops at a few-tenths to a few mg/L in acid soils. Molybdenum0.01 0.05 Nontoxic to plants at normal concentrations in soil and water. Can be toxic to livestock if forage is grown in soils with high levels of available molybdenum. Nickel0.2 2 Toxic to a number of plants at 0.5 to 1.0 mg/L; reduced toxicity at neutral or alkaline pH. Selenium0.02 0.02 Toxic to plants at low concentrations and to livestock if forage is grown in soils with low levels of added selenium. Tin, Tungsten, Titanium2 2 Effectively excluded by plants; specific tolerance levels unknown. Vanadium0.1 1 Toxic to many plants at relatively low concentrations. Zinc2 10 Toxic to many plants at widely varying concentrations; reduced toxicity at increased pH (6 or above) and in fine-textured or organic soils. Other Parameters ConstituentRecommended Limit Remarks pH6 Most effects of pH on plant growth are indirect (e.g., pH effects on heavy metalsÃ¢â¬â¢ toxicity described above). TDS500-2000 mg/L Below 500mg/L, no detrimental effects are usually noticed. Between 500 and 1000 mg/L, TDS in irrigation water can affect many crops and careful management practices should be followed. Above 2000 mg/L, water can be used regularly only for tolerant plants on permeable soils. Free Chlorine Residual1 mg/L The secondary treatment processes vary in their effectiveness at the removal of significant trace elements. However, advance treatment process such as carbon adsorption and chemical coagulation can remove over 90 percent of the trace elements from the wastewater. As indicated, some trace elements are toxic at elevated concentrations. Cadmium, copper and molybdenum can be hazardous to animals at concentration too low to affect crops. Cadmium is of special concern as it can accumulate in the food chain. It does not affect ruminants in the little amounts they ingest. Most beef and milk products are unaffected by livestock ingestion of cadmium as it is stored in the kidneys and liver of the animal rather than the muscle tissues or fat. Copper is not harmful to monogastric animals but can be toxic to ruminants. However, the animalÃ¢â¬â¢s tolerance to copper increases as available molybdenum increases. Molybdenum may also be hazardous when available in the absence of copper. While zinc and nickel are a lesser concern than cadmium, copper and molybdenum. They have negative effects on plants at lower concentrations than the levels harmful to plants and animals. However, zinc and nickel toxicities are decreased as the pH is increased. 2.2.2 Wastewater Reuse for Industrial Use Treated wastewater can be an important potential source of water for many industries, particularly in water-short regions. The quantity of water used in power generation and manufacturing processes is very large and the availability of unlimited of water was considered as a prerequisite. Wastewater reuse for industrial use has many potential applications, ranging from common housekeeping options to advanced technology implementation. The reuse of wastewater for industry can be adopted through industrial processes, internal recycling and non- industrial reuse of industrial facility effluent. The major industrial categories that use treated wastewater include:7 Evaporative cooling water, Boiler feedwater, Process water, and Irrigation and maintenance of plant grounds, fire protection, and dust control. Among the various industrial users of treated wastewater, cooling water is the greatest single application. All heat from various industrial processes must be removed and the most efficient coolant is water. The water can be a once-through recirculating cooling system or cascading use of cooling water in other applications. Water quality requirements for industrial applications are related to four different issues include scaling, corrosion, biological growth and fouling, which may affect industrial process efficacy and integrity, as well as product quality. These concerns are addressed by the options summarized in Table 2.7. Table 2.7 Industrial Water Reuse: Concerns, Causes, and Treatment Options ConcernsCausesTreatment options Scalinginorganic compounds,saltsscaling inhibitor, carbon adsorption, filtration, ion exchange,blowdown rate control Corrosiondissolved and suspended solids pH imbalancecorrosion inhibitor,reverse osmosis Biological growthresidual organics, ammonia, phosphorousbiocides, dispersants, filtration Foulingmicrobial growth, phosphates, dissolved and suspended solidscontrol of scaling, corrosion, microbial growth, filtrationchemical and physical dispersants From Asano and Levine, 1998. Pathogens in treated wastewater used in industrial applications present potential health risks to workers and public from aerosols and windblown spray. Aerosols contain toxic organic compounds and bacteria, such as Legionella pneumophila, which causes LegionnaireÃ¢â¬â¢s disease. In recent years, the net quantity of water used has reduced sharply because water shortages and discharge regulations have made it necessary to treat it before disposing it away. A large quantity of this reduction is achieved by internal reuse. 2.2.3Wastewater Reuse for Recreational Use The treated wastewater may serve a variety of recreational applications include swimming, boating and fishing. The appearance of treated wastewater is essential when it is used, and treatment for nutrient removal may be adopted. Without nutrient control, there is a potential issue for algae blooms, resulting in odors and eutrophic conditions. The criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater for recreational purposes will vary with the potential for human contact, as well as the sources of the secondary pollutants, such as body discharges, air contaminants and sewage. The criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater to be used for recreational applications can be subdivided into the following three groups. I. Elementary Body Contact Recreational Water This group of treated wastewater used in situations where there is intimate contact between the human body and the water and where there is a potential risk of ingesting a large amount of water which may pose a health risk. The treated wastewater used for contact recreational purposes include swimming, waterskiing, bathing, etc. The methods of transmission of virus may happen due to ingestion of water or via the exposed mucous membranes and skin in protective ski barrier. Swimming pools have been implicated as the adenovirus pharyngitis and conjunctivitis, as well as enterovirus meningitis.10 Some of the diseases transmitted by swimming pool water are listed in Table 2.8. Table 2.8 Some Diseases Transmitted by Swimming Pool Water DiseaseCausative agent ConjunctivitisVirus Sinusitis and otitisStreptococci and Staphylococci (propagated by nasal mucus) Certain types of enteritisSome pathogens or certain viruses ingested with water Skin disease: EczemasKoch bacillus GranulomaMycobacterium marinum EpidermophytosisBrought about by the fungus that attaches itself to the skin between the toes and is contracted particularly easily when walking on areas around the pool. Typhoid feverSalmonella typhi DysenteryEntamoeba histolytica, Shigella Infectious hepatitisVirus Compiled from Reference 10 and 11. Normally, the criteria, regulations and guidelines of treated wastewater used that are adopted for this group are more stringent. For use in recreational applications where full body contact with the water is permitted, the water should be colorless, microbiologically safe and non-irritating eyes or skin. II. Secondary Body Contact Recreational Water This group of treated wastewater used includes fishing, boating, canoeing, camping, and golf course and landscape irrigation. Treated wastewater used for this category should not contain high levels of heavy metals or pathogens that accumulate in fish to degrees that pose health threat to the consumers. The recommended water quality criteria for body contact and secondary body contact are presented in Table 2.9. References 1Committee to Evaluate the Viability of Augmenting Potable Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water, Water Science and Technology Board, Commission on Geosciences, Environment, and Resources, National Research Council, Issues in Potable Reuse: The Viability of Augmenting Drinking Water Supplies with Reclaimed Water, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1998. 2Takashi Asano, Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, Technomic Pub.,Lancaster,Pa., 1998. 3 Donald R. Rowe, Isam Mohammed Abdel-Magid, Handbook of Wastewater Reclamation and Reuse, Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, Fla., 1995. 4 Shuval, H. I., Water Renovation and Reuse, Academic Press,New York, 1977. 5 Rowe, D. R., K. Al-Dhowalia, and A. Whitehead, Reuse of Riyadh Treated Wastewater, Project No. 18/1402, King Saud University, The College of Engineering Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, 1988. 6 USPHA, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater, 15th ed., American Public Health Association,Washington,D.C., 1980. 7 USEPA, Manual Ã¢â¬â Guidelines For Water Reuse, EPA/625/R-92/004, Office of Water, Office of Wastewater Enforcement and Compliance, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., September, 1992. 8Ayers, R. S. and D. W. Westcot, Water Quality for Agriculture, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations,Rome, 1976. 9USEPA, Process Design Manual for Land Treatment of Municipal Wastewater, EPA 625/1-77-008, E1, E2 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., October, 1977. 10 WHO, Report of a WHO Scientific Group, Human Viruses in Water, Wastewater and Soil, TRS 639, WHO, Geneva, 1979. 11 Glossary Water and Wastewater Control Engineering, 3rd ed., American Public Health Association,Washington,D.C., 1981. How to cite Wastewater reuse growing unprecedented populations and increasing pressure., Essay examples
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In marketing, it is impossible to avoid consideration of marketing mix, which involves 4Ps. The 4Ps encompass: place, promotion, price and product (Viardot, 2004). This exposes one of crucial obligations of any marketing manager. That is, a marketing manager is responsible for formulating effective distribution strategy (place) in order to keep the other Ps moving (Distributionstrategy. org. , 2013). As a result, studies described distribution strategy as crucial prerequisite for success of any business (Chapter 15: Product Distribution, n. d. ). It is a plan of actions employed to move service/product from the manufacturer to the end consumers through different approaches such as physical distribution and distribution channels. Generally, it tries to describe where and how customers purchase firmÃ¢â¬â¢s service/products. Distribution strategy focuses on various factors, which encompass: location of the firm and target market, approaches of reaching the target market, warehousing, as well as transportation. In this paper, distribution strategy critically discussed besides evaluating how it used in consumer market. Channel intermediaries are firms or individuals such as wholesalers, agents, brokers, or retailers who help move a product from the producer to the consumer or business user. A companyÃ¢â¬â¢s channel decisions directly affect every other marketing decision. Place decisions, for example, affect pricing. Marketers that distribute products through mass merchandisers such as Wal-Mart will have different pricing objectives and strategies than will those that sell to specialty stores. Distribution decisions can sometimes give a product a distinct position in the market.The choice of retailers and other intermediaries is strongly tied to the product itself. Manufacturers select mass merchandisers to sell middle price ranged products while they distribute top-of-the-line products through high-end department and specialty stores. The firmÃ¢â¬â¢s sales force and communications decisions depend on how much persuasion, training, motivation, and support its channel partners need. Whether a company develops or acquires certain new products may depend on how well those products fit the capabilities of its channel members. Some companies pay too little attention to their distribution channels.